Most Viewed

Categories

  • No categories

Machine Learning | IntechOpen

Open access peer-reviewed Edited Volume

Machine Learning can be defined in various ways related to a scientific domain concerned with the design and development of theoretical and implementation tools that allow building systems with some Human Like intelligent behavior. Machine learning addresses more specifically the ability to improve automatically through experience.

Order hardcopy

Open access peer-reviewed

1. Neural Machine Learning Approaches: Q-Learning and Complexity Estimation Based Information Processing System

By Abdennasser Chebira, Abdelhamid Mellouk, Kurosh Madani and Said Hoceini

7878

Open access peer-reviewed

2. From Automation To Autonomy

By Kentarou Kurashige, Yukiko Onoue and Toshio Fukuda

4405

Open access peer-reviewed

3. Taking Experience to a Whole New Level

By Luis Ignacio Lopera

3622

Open access peer-reviewed

4. Hamiltonian Neural Networks Based Networks for Learning

By Wieslaw Sienko and Wieslaw Citko

4432

Open access peer-reviewed

5. Similarity Discriminant Analysis

By Luca Cazzanti

4071

Open access peer-reviewed

6. Forced Information for Information-Theoretic Competitive Learning

By Ryotaro Kamimura

3336

Open access peer-reviewed

7. Learning to Build a Semantic Thesaurus from Free Text Corpora without External Help

By Katia Lida Kermanidis

3511

Open access peer-reviewed

8. Machine Learning Methods for Spoken Dialogue Simulation and Optimization

By Olivier Pietquin

3482

Open access peer-reviewed

9. Hardening Email Security via Bayesian Additive Regression Trees

By Saeed Abu-Nimeh, Dario Nappa, Xinlei Wang and Suku Nair

4729

Open access peer-reviewed

10. Learning Optimal Web Service Selections in Dynamic Environments when Many Quality-of-Service Criteria Matter

By Stéphane Dehousse, Stéphane Faulkner, Caroline Herssens, Ivan J. Jureta and Marcos Saerens

3462

Open access peer-reviewed

11. Model Selection for Ranking SVM Using Regularization Path

By Karina Zapien, Gilles Gasso, Thomas Gärtner and Stéphane Canu

4566

Open access peer-reviewed

12. Generation of Facial Expression Map using Supervised and Unsupervised Learning

By Masaki Ishii, Kazuhito Sato, Hirokazu Madokoro and Makoto Nishida

3566

Open access peer-reviewed

13. Linear Subspace Learning for Facial Expression Analysis

By Caifeng Shan

3757

Open access peer-reviewed

14. Resampling Methods for Unsupervised Learning from Sample Data

By Ulrich Möller

4064

Open access peer-reviewed

15. 3D Shape Classification and Retrieval Using Heterogenous Features and Supervised Learning

By Hamid Laga

5370

Open access peer-reviewed

16. Performance Analysis of Hybrid Non-Supervised & Supervised Learning Techniques Applied to the Classification of Faults in Energy Transport Systems

By Jhon Albeiro Calderón, Germán Zapata Madrigal and Demetrio A. Ovalle Carranza

4416

Open access peer-reviewed

17. Genetic Network Programming with Reinforcement Learning and Its Application to Creating Stock Trading Rules

By Yan Chen, Shingo Mabu and Kotaro Hirasawa

5206

Open access peer-reviewed

18. Heuristic Dynamic Programming Nonlinear Optimal Controller

By Asma Al-tamimi, Murad Abu-Khalaf and Frank Lewis

5162

Open access peer-reviewed

19. Implicit Estimation of Another’s Intention Based on Modular Reinforcement Learning

By Tadahiro Taniguchi, Kenji Ogawa and Tetsuo Sawaragi

3439

Open access peer-reviewed

20. Machine Learning for Sequential Behavior Modeling and Prediction

By Xin Xu

6150

Edited Volume and chapters are indexed in

Order a hardcopy of the Edited Volume

Free shipping with DHL Express

Hardcover (ex. VAT)£170

Order now

Residents of European Union countries need to add a Book Value-Added Tax of 5%. Institutions and companies, registered as VAT taxable entities in their own EU member state, will not pay VAT by providing IntechOpen with their VAT registration number. This is made possible by the EU reverse charge method.

Special discount for IntechOpen contributors

All IntechOpen contributors are offered special discounts starting at 40% OFF available through your personal dashboard

Login and purchasen

n

2. Materials and methods

n

This chapter is mainly based on the information gathered and compiled through desktop review of available scientific publications including journals, proceedings, annual progress reports of various national institutions, technical bulletins, statistical year books, master and doctorate dissertations, project compilation reports, etc. This chapter covers general introduction, materials and methods, population and its distribution of goats, and diversity of goat genetic resources in Nepal. In addition, present review includes breeding management, variation in genetic parameters, and biotechnological approaches for goat development. Authentication of data available from different sources was carefully checked while preparing this chapter. Quantitative information used in this chapter were retrieved from authentic sources including published journals and reports of the Central Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development, Department of Livestock Services, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, universities, and other government organizations. For the validation of information collected for this chapter, authors also tried to triangulate the data from different sources.

n

n

n

3. Population and its distribution of goats in Nepal

n

According to the livestock census 2015/2016, the total goat population in Nepal was 10.98 million [6]. Province-wise goat population and distribution of goats per unit of area in Nepal is presented hereunder (see Table 1). Distribution of goat population was highest for Province No. 1 (2.28 millions—20.8%) followed by Province No. 3 (2.11 millions—19.2%) and 5 (1.96 millions—17.8%) with lowest for Province No. 6 (1 million—9.2%). However, the density of goats per unit area was found highest for Province No. 2 (146 goats/km2) with lowest density for Province No. 6 (36 goats/km2).

n

nnnnnnnnn

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

Province No. Area (km2) Goat population Density of goats per unit area (no./km2) Percentage of total population Goat meat production (Mt) Total meat production (Mt) Percentage contribution
1 25,905 2,285,180 88.2 20.8 12,243 62,932 19.5
2 9661 1,406,039 145.5 12.8 10,012 41,748 24.0
3 20,300 2,108,581 103.9 19.2 10,367 72,253 14.3
4 21,504 1,144,030 53.2 10.4 6416 37,422 17.1
5 22,288 1,958,984 87.9 17.8 14,595 59,083 24.7
6 27,984 1,005,011 35.9 9.2 5058 19,515 25.9
7 19,539 1,078,290 55.2 9.8 6893 29,107 23.7
Total 147,181 10,986,114 100 65,583 322,059 20.4

Table 1.

Province-wise distribution of goat population, density of goats per unit area, meat production (Mt), and its contribution in Nepal.

Source: [6, 7].

n

Similarly, 65,583 Mt of goat meat was produced in 2016 which was about 20.4% of total meat production in the country [6]. The largest amount of goat meat was produced from Province No. 5 followed by Province No. 1 and 3 with 14,595, 12,243, and 10,367 Mt meat productions, respectively. But the percentage contribution to total meat production was observed highest for Province No. 6 (25.9%) followed by Province No. 2 (24%) and was found lowest for Province No. 3 (14.3%).

n

More than 50% (5.74 millions) of the total goat population was distributed in mid-hill regions with 36 (3.98 millions) in Terai and 11.5% (1.26 millions) in high hills and Himalayan regions of Nepal (Table 2). However, according to percentage contribution related to meat production, in total goat meat contributes about 20.4% standing in second position after Buffalo meat (54%).

n

nnnnnnn

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

Agroecological zones Goat population Percentage distribution Goat meat production (Mt) Total meat production (Mt) Percentage contribution
Terai 3,983,886 36.3 30,117 145,798 20.7
Midhills 5,736,831 52.2 29,109 153,265 19.0
High hills 1,265,397 11.5 6357 22,996 27.6
Total 10,986,114 100 65,583 322,059 20.4

Table 2.

Agroecological zone (AEZ)-wise distribution of goat population (number) and goat meat production (Mt) in Nepal.

Source: [6].

n

n

n

4. Diversity of goat genetic resources in Nepal

n

n

4.1. Existing indigenous genetic resources

n

In Nepal, four indigenous breeds of goat have been identified and characterized. These breeds are distributed across various ecological domains of the country. They include Chyangra, Sinhal, Khari, and Terai [8, 9, 10, 11, 12] (see Figure 1). Characterization of these breeds is done based on morphological traits and mitochondrial DNA study (Table 3). Terai goats are predominantly found across southern plains and inner Terai (100–500 masl) from east to west of the country. Khari goats, also known as hill goat, are the principal goat breed found across the mid-hill region of Nepal at an altitude of 500–1500 masl. Kuwar [19] reported three distinct strains (small, medium, and large) existed among Khari population. Sinhal goats are abundantly available in high hills and mountain regions from 1500 to 2400 masl, whereas Chyangra goats are the dominant breeds across northern trans-Himalayan regions from an altitude of 2500–5000 masl from east to west.

n

Figure 1.

Indigenous goat breeds of Nepal (photo courtesy: Animal Breeding Division, NARC).

n

n

4.1.1. Terai

n

Terai goats are found in the Terai region and inner valleys (tropical and subtropical climate) of the country and are reared as the meat-type animals [9]. They have been characterized at phenotypic, chromosomal, and mitochondrial levels [4, 12, 14]. They are heavily crossed with Indian breeds including Jamnapari, Barbari, Ajmeri/Sirohi, and Beetal; and thus population of pure Terai goats is at risk from the conservation point of view. This breed constitutes 27% [15] or less than that of the total goat population of the country. Body color of Terai goats varies from pure white to pure black with mixed patches of different colors. Its compact body weight is around 30 kg with 60 cm body length, 65 cm chest girth, and 58 cm wither height. Body weight varies from 30 to 35 kg for male and 25–30 kg for female.

n

n

n

4.1.2. Khari

n

Khari goats (hill goats) are the principal goat breed and are found across the hills and midhills from east to west of the country. They are prolific with higher twinning ability and shorter kidding interval and good for meat purpose. They are hardy and well adapted to local environments and represent more than 50% of the total goat population in the country [15, 16]. They have been characterized at phenotypic, chromosomal, and mitochondrial DNA levels [12, 17]. They are normal from a conservation point of view.

n

Khari goats have great variation in coat color from white to black. It has been reported that there are six sub-types within Khari goats based on coat color. They are Seti (pure white), Kali (pure black), Khairi (brown), Ghorli (brown with white and other color patches), Singari (black with white stripes on face), and Dhobini (ash color) [18]. Dhobini sub-type is bigger in size than the other five sub-types, weighing around 30 kg, with 63, 65, and 56 cm length, chest girth, and wither height, respectively. Khari goats from different clusters of eastern, western, and midwestern regions of Nepal show that the Khari goats’ body size are heavier in midwestern (Salyan and Surkhet) from those found in western and eastern regions (see Table 4).

n

nnnnnn

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

Breeds Positive attributes Distribution Status Characterization
Terai Hardy, good size, suitable for Terai Across the Terai Population declining Phenotypic + chromosomal + mtDNA
Khari/Hill Principal breed, suitable for hills, hardy, prolific, meat animal Across the midhills Population declining Phenotypic + chromosomal + mtDNA
Sinhal Hardy, suitable for high hills, pack animal, large size Across the high hills Population declining Phenotypic + mtDNA
Chyangra Hardy, suitable for transhumance system, multipurpose (meat, pack, and pashmina) Across the Himalayas Population declining Phenotypic + mtDNA

Table 3.

Positive attributes, distribution, and population status of Nepalese goats.

Source: [12, 13].

n

nnnnn

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

Parameters Cluster A (46) Cluster B (70) Cluster C (73)
Body length (cm) 69.3 ± 0.3a 66.5 ± 0.2b 64.9 ± 0.2c
Wither height (cm) 66.9 ± 0.2a 64.7 ± 0.1b 59.2 ± 0.2c
Heart girth (cm) 69.9 ± 0.3a 66.5 ± 0.2b 65.9 ± 0.2c
Flank girth (cm) 81.7 ± 0.2a 80.1 ± 0.2b 71.4 ± 0.1c
Flank height (cm) 68.9 ± 0.2a 67.3 ± 0.1b 61.1 ± 0.2c
Ear length (cm) 15.6 ± 0.2a 13.3 ± 0.2b 13.3 ± 0.1b
Horn length (cm) 16.7 ± 0.6a 10.7 ± 0.5b 11.3 ± 0.3b
Adult weight (kg) 38.6 ± 0.8a 31.8 ± 0.4b 27.7 ± 0.5c

Table 4.

Khari goats from different clusters of eastern, western, and midwestern regions of Nepal.

Note: Number in parenthesis indicates the number of observations. Cluster A, goats from midwestern region (Salyan and Surkhet); Cluster B, goats from west (Lumle and Bandipur); and Cluster C, goats from east (Sindhuli and Pakhribas) of Nepal. Means with different superscripts differ significantly. Source: [19].

n

n

n

4.1.3. Sinhal

n

Sinhal goats are the heaviest native goat breed and represent 16% of the total goat population [15] and are the predominant breeds of high hills in Nepal. They are good for meat production and transportation as pack animals under transhumance system provided with low-input management system. They are large-sized hardy and well-adapted animals to local harsh conditions. They have been characterized at phenotypic and mitochondrial levels. The farmers are conserving them in situ, but an increased focus is needed on better management practices on breeding, feeding, housing, and health. They are at risk from conservation point of view.

n

Sinhal varies in its coat color from black to white, where gray, black, and white mixed are the common coat colors of this breed. Average adult body weight of Sinhal is reported as 35 kg for male and 29 kg for doe, with 69 cm body length, 78 cm heart girth, and 59 cm wither height on an average.

n

n

n

4.1.4. Chyangra

n

Chyangra goats are the mountain goat originating from Tibet reared in trans-Himalayan region along with Bhyanglung, a type of sheep in high mountain and trans-Himal region 2500 meters above sea level. They have been reared in situ condition by farmers themselves. They are suitable for meat and pack and are popular for high value as well as fine quality called Chyangra fiber known as Pashmina [20]. Their population is declining and hence needs attention. They have been characterized at phenotypic and mitochondrial levels. Chyangra fiber has high market potentials, as they have unique blend and qualities and hence are popular within and outside the country. Chyangra population is estimated to be around 1% of the total goat population, i.e., 0.11 million heads in Nepal [6]. Body color varies from pure white to pure black with mixed patch of different colors. Its compact body weighs around 30 kg with body length of 62 cm and chest girth of 71 cm. Wither height is 62 cm. Body weight varies from 29 to 32 kg for females and 35–40 kg for males. The morphological variation of four indigenous breeds of goats in Nepal is presented hereunder (see Table 5).

n

nnnnnn

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

Parameters Terai Khari Sinhal Chyangra
Body length 60.6 ± 0.87 63.1 ± 0.39 68.7 ± 0.44 62.3 ± 0.36
Heart girth 65.2 ± 0.44 65.5 ± 0.37 77.8 ± 0.44 71.3 ± 0.37
Height at wither 57.9 ± 0.32 55.9 ± 0.28 59.2 ± 1.06 62.4 ± 0.23
Height at hip bone 60.8 ± 0.73 51.5 ± 1.76 M: 51.7 ± 1.27
F: 53.3 ± 0.72
M: 60.8 ± 0.78
F: 58.7 ± 0.85
Head length 18.3 ± 0.25 15.5 ± 0.56 16 ± 0.4 15.1 ± 0.6
Tail length 13.4 ± 0.2 12.6 ± 0.3 12.0 ± 0.4 15.1 ± 0.6
Horn length 8.37 ± 0.2 11.5 ± 1.3 15.3 ± 0.84 18.2 ± 0.7
Ear length 18.7 ± 0.30 16.2 ± 0.4 14.5 ± 0.5 10.5 ± 0.4
Neck length 25.7 ± 0.45 20.5 ± 0.56 20.7 ± 0.76 20.2 ± 0.7
Loin girth 74.1 ± 0.65 72.8 ± 0.53 73.5 ± 1.19 70.3 ± 0.43
Barrel girth 84.7 ± 5.8 86.7 ± 3.3 53.2 ± 4.7 75.3 ± 1.4
Fore legs above knee 19 ± 0.52 17.8 ± 0.47 18.7 ± 0.49 16.1 ± 0.51
Fore legs below knee 16.2 ± 0.3 16 ± 0.57 16.3 ± 0.33 15.2 ± 0.65
Rear legs above knee 23.2 ± 0.61 22 ± 0.58 23.2 ± 0.65 18.3 ± 0.54
Rear legs below knee 22.6 ± 0.49 19.8 ± 0.4 21.2 ± 0.3 17.8 ± 0.45
Adult body weight (kg) F: 23.3 ± 0.1
M: 30–35
F: 24.1 ± 0.34
M: 28–40
F: 34.8 ± 0.12
M: 28–42
F: 29.1 ± 0.69
M: 35–40

Table 5.

Comparative morphometric measurements of indigenous breeds of goat (values are means in cm ± standard errors).

Source: [15, 22, 24, 25].

n

Owing to the remoteness, harsh climatic condition and transhumance system of management Chyangra goat are not getting due consideration from public and private institutions. Thus, productivity and population of this breed is dwindling rapidly. The goat is used for meat and for pack purpose in mountain terrace where road facilities are seldom. The breed is also used for production of precious pashmina (Chyangra cashmere). Besides their incomparable contribution in mountain farming system, the breed has not been understood completely in the sense of their quantitative and qualitative attributes. Limited information are available on morphological characteristics and growth traits. The breed is not fully utilized for its Chyangra cashmere production, and this is an area of importance where focus is required [21].

n

n

n

4.1.5. Chitwan local goats

n

Apart from above indigenous breeds, there are niche specific breed studied at inner Terai region, that is, Chitwan District of Nepal, referred to as Chitwan local goats. Very limited information is available about this breed to date. These breeds have a medium-sized body having heavier body weight than Khari and Terai goat breeds with dominant white color with distribution of brown, black, and mixed color. It has been reported that the age at first conception, age at first kidding, gestation length, kidding interval, and postpartum estrus were 211, 356, 147, 236, and 87 days, respectively, for adult does of Chitwan local goats. The adult does of Chitwan local (31.1 kg) were significantly heavier (p < 0.001) than that of Terai goat (25.9 kg) and Khari goats (23.5 kg). It had been observed that the mean birth, weaning, and postweaning (8 months) weight for these breeds of goats were 2.48, 13.22, and 17.64 kg, respectively. Apart from above findings, it is also reported that the mean litter size at birth were 2.0, 1.53, and 1.48 kids per doe and at weaning were 1.94, 1.49, and 1.28 kids per doe for Chitwan local, Terai, and Khari goats, respectively [26, 27].

n

n

n

n

4.2. Popular exotic breeds of goats in Nepal

n

n

4.2.1. Jamnapari

n

Jamnapari is a breed of goat originating from the Indian subcontinent. It is a dual-purpose breed kept for both milk and meat. Jamnapari goats were mainly introduced in Nepal to upgrade and improve body weight of local Khari and Terai goats. Adult Jamunapari goat has a body weight of 45 kg for bucks and 38 kg for does along with wither height between 75 and 78 cm, body lengths of 75–77 cm, and heart girth of 76–79.5 cm (Table 6). Yearling weight of these goats in research stations was about 21 kg. The average age at first kidding and kidding interval in Jamnapari goats is 770 and 428 days, respectively.

n

n

n

4.2.2. Barbari

n

The Barbari goats are a meat-type breed that is found in Mathura District of Uttar Pradesh, in addition to Gujrat, Jhelum, and Sargodha districts in Punjab Province. Barbari goats are popular for its compact and small body with average adult weight ranging from 23–36 kg (Table 6). Body color is mainly white with brownish red spots and coat is short. The head is small, with small upward-pointing ears and small curled horns. Does have good reproductive performance and produce well in intensive system and at dry areas. Average age at first kidding and kidding interval in Barbari goats is 588 and 274 days, respectively. Triple kidding and early maturity are common features of these goats.

n

n

n

4.2.3. Sirohi/Ajmeri

n

The Sirohi and Ajmeri goats are a meat-type breed that is found in Sirohi District of Rajasthan. This breed also extends to Palanpur in Gujarat. Mature males weigh around 50 kg but females weigh only 25–30 kg (Table 6). These are compact, medium-sized animals. Coat color is predominantly brown, with light or dark brown patches; a very few individuals are completely white. Most animals are wattled. Ears are flat and leaf-like and medium-sized and have a drooping ear length of 18.8 cm. Both sexes have small horns, curved upward and backward. Tail is medium in length and curved upward. Udder is small and round, with small teats placed laterally. Some commercial farms and lead farmers have imported this breed and crossbred with Khari and Terai goats, but the information regarding the productive and reproductive performance is still to come.

n

nnnnnnnn

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

Production performances Jamnapari Barbari Beetal
Birth weight (kg) 4.3 1.7 2.8
Yearling wt (kg) 29.6 14.5 15.0
Adult weight (kg) 44.7 38.0 35.8 22.6 59.1 35.0
Body length (cm) 77.4 75.2 70.4 56.2 85.5 70.4
Hearth girth (cm) 79.5 76.1 75.5 64.3 86.0 73.7
Wither height (cm) 78.2 75.2 70.7 56.2 91.6 77.1

Table 6.

Comparative productive performance of exotic breeds of goat in Nepal.

Source: [28].

n

n

n

4.2.4. Boer

n

The Boer is an improved breed with some infusion of European, Angora, and Indian goat breeding developed in South Africa in the early 1900s. The Boer goat is primarily a meat goat with several adaptations to the region in which it was developed. It is a horned breed with lop ears and showing a variety of color patterns. The most common color of this breed is white body with red head and large, muscular frame. The Boer goat is being popular for its browsing ability and limited impact on the grass cover. Producing weaning rates in excess of 160%, the Boer goat doe is a low-maintenance animal that has sufficient milk to rear a kid that is early maturing. The mature buck weighs between 110 and 135 kg and does between 90 and 100 kg. Performance records for this breed indicate exceptional individuals are capable of average daily gains over 200 g/day in feedlot. More standard performance would be 150–170 g/day. The ovulation rate for Boer goats ranges from one to four eggs/doe with an average of 1.7. A kidding rate of 200% is common for this breed. Puberty is reached early, usually about 6 months for the males and 10–12 months for the females. The Boer goat also has an extended breeding season making possible three kids every 2 years.

n

It was introduced in Nepal from a private sector to improve growth performance of local goats. Recently, projects funded by the World Bank (WB) and International Fund for Agriculture Development (IFAD) implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development specifically Agriculture Food Security Project (AFSP) and Kisan Ka Lagi Unnat Bui Bijan Karyakram (KUBK), respectively, are working on producing crossbreds with the local Khari/Hill goat, government, and breeders’ farmers of mid- and far-western regions. Goat Research Station, Bandipur; RARS, Khajura; and GDF, Budhitola, are the government-owned farms with nucleus herd of Boer goat in Nepal. However, a comprehensive study on survivability, growth, and reproductive performances as well as efficiency (economics) needs to be investigated.

n

n

n

4.2.5. Saanen

n

Saanen goats are dairy goats originating from Switzerland, in the Saanen Valley. Saanen does are heavy milk producers (on an average of 4 L/day) and usually yield 3–4% milk fat. It is medium to large in size (female weighing approximately 65–70 kg and males weighing about 80–90 kg) with rugged bone and plenty of vigor. Saanen goats are white or light cream in color, with white being preferred. The hairs are short and fine, although a fringe over the spine and thighs is often present. Ears are erect and alertly carried, preferably pointing forward. The face is straight or dished. A tendency toward having a Roman nose is being discriminated against. The breed is sensitive to excessive sunlight and performs best in cooler conditions.

n

n

n

4.2.6. Beetal

n

The Beetal is a breed used for meat and milk production found in Punjab, Pakistan, and India. The Beetal is usually black and the males have long twisting horns. The breed is similar to the Jamnapari but smaller. The adult male weighs around 60 kg and females are 35–40 kg (Table 6). The coat is short and lustrous. The face line is convex, with a typical Roman nose but not as prominent as in Jamnapari. Ears are long and flat, curled, and drooping with ear length of 24.8 cm. The udder is large and well developed, with large conical teats. Pictorial presentation of popular exotic breeds in Nepal is provided in Figure 2.

n

Figure 2.

Different exotic goat breeds available in Nepal (photo courtesy: Animal Breeding Division, NARC).

n

n

n

n

n

5. Breeding management

n

n

5.1. Selection

n

Genotype of an individual is determined by the genes received from the buck and doe at fertilization (union of sperm and ova) and remains the same throughout life except in few circumstances. Therefore improving genetic superiority of kids depends on the careful selection of superior bucks and does and mating them appropriately. Thus, selection is the most basic and common tool being practiced for genetic improvement in the major economic traits of goats. It is the process of choosing superior goats (male and female) from the herd that are likely to be the parents of the next generation.

n

Selection, whether based on individual, family, or pedigree, is dependent upon the economically important traits (meat, milk, pashmina, etc.) of the selected genes. Goats in Nepal have been mostly selected for meat production. However, the mountain goats are also being selected for pashmina (fiber) production, and in very rare cases, they are being selected for increased milk production. These traits are quantitative and are influenced by many genes (additive, dominance, and epistatic). Chyangra goats produce up to 2–3 kg pashmina fiber annually.

n

There is potential to develop dual-purpose meat and fiber producers but only under improved nutritional conditions compared to present day. Thus, there is great possibility of developing Chyangra as a dual-purpose goat breed in mountain ecosystem.

n

In selecting for fiber, one is interested in both quantity (weight) and quality of fiber (length, fineness, style, character, absence of Kemp, etc.). In addition to fiber, one must be concerned with traits that contribute to the survival or viability (soundness, fertility, etc.) of the individual and flocks.

n

The selection of any breed for a particular ecological domain may not give the desired result if the required care is not paid in selecting genetically superior individual as parents of future generation. Indigenous goat breeds (Chyangra, Sinhal, Khari, and Terai goats) and exotic breeds (Jamnapari, Barbari, Beetal, Saanen, Damascus, Kiko, etc.) have their own importance. Nepal government has focused mainly on selection and mating of the best to the best individuals within the existing indigenous goat population. However, recommendation of the appropriate breeds for the specific ecological belt of Nepal is not consistently working at farmers’ level.

n

Here are the important selection criteria breeders are following to select the goats in general for their genetic for improvement:

  • High growth rate (greater finishing weight at slaughter age)

  • Prolificacy (twining)

  • Kid rearing (less kid mortality—milking ability of does)

  • Resistance to internal parasite—good growth

  • Early age at maturity and regular kidding (3 times in 2 years)—good fertility

  • Carcass yield and quality

n

Chyangra goats are being selected by the breeders and/or herders to some extent for improving:

  • Quantity of pashmina fiber

  • Quality of the fiber (fineness, length, color also matters)

  • Body size and weight trait (correlated response larger body size—larger surface area and more Pashmina yield)

n

Selection for pashmina fiber quality includes primarily fiber diameter (finer fibers preferred), length (4 inches minimum), freedom from Kemp (coarse, brittle, chalky white hair mixed in the fleece), and desirable lock formation.

n

Selection for quantity of pashmina fiber is accomplished efficiently by using fiber weights of Chyangra goats which are being considered as breeding animals. However, history indicates that most producers practice visual selection. In this case the predicting indicators of fleece weight are:

  • Size of the animal

  • Completeness of cover

  • Length of fiber

  • Diameter fiber

  • Differences in density

n

Genetic gain and response to selection have been studied for some weight and litter traits of Khari goats [29], and it is reported that these selection parameters were higher when both males and females are selected than when only males were selected (see Table 7).

n

nnnnnn

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

Traits Genetic gain/year (a) R Genetic gain/year (b) R
Birth weight (g) 105 6.4 58 3.5
Weaned weight (g) 289 4.0 159 2.2
6-month weight (g) 276 3.4 152 1.9
36-week weight (g) 295 2.9 162 1.6
48-week weight (g) 394 3.2 216 1.8
LS at birth (no) 0.008 0.5 0.005 0.3
LS at weaning (no) 0.008 0.6 0.004 0.3
LW at birth (g) 120 4.6 66 2.5
LW at weaning (g) 247 2.5 136 1.4

Table 7.

Predicted response to selection for both growth and reproductive traits in Khari goat breed.

(a) When both selected bucks and does are used; (b) when only selected bucks are used. R = response to selection per year (%). Source: [29].

n

n

n

5.2. Pure breeding

n

Pure breeding within the indigenous goat population is common practice among the herders especially in the mountain and high hill region. Thus, Chyangra and Sinhal goats are bred within themselves for maintaining genetic purity without losing the adaptation potentials of the flock. In some areas where goat improvement interventions are not implemented by the government and/or development agencies, pure breeding of Khari goat is common as well. This system of breeding helps maintain the genetic purity of native breeds un-deteriorated and could be conserved for long.

n

n

n

5.3. Crossbreeding

n

In the last few decades (1990s), Khari goats were massively crossed with the Indian Jamnapari and Barbari goat breeds for increasing growth and productivity of native breed, assuming that the crosses of Jamnapari and Barbari goats with Khari would give the better result. After some research works carried out by the Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC) at its agricultural research stations (ARSs), the Department of Livestock Services (DLS) again convinced that the Khari could be the best breed for meat production because of its better production characteristics, especially higher twinning percentage, prolificacy, lower kidding interval, efficient average daily gain (ADG), higher resistance against the diseases and parasites, etc.

n

Now, Khari goats are being crossbred with Boer either naturally or through artificial insemination with frozen semen in hilly regions across the country through the initiation of leading private goat entrepreneurs (Bagmati Goat Seeds Pvt. Ltd., Dhadhing; Bagaichha farm house, Nawalparasi; Jagatput Agro, Chitwan, etc.), Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development, and internationally funded projects including Agriculture and Food Security Project (AFSP) funded by the World Bank, Improved Seeds Program for Farmers (KUBK/IFSP) funded by IFAD, etc.

n

The preliminary results suggest that crossbreeding Boer with native Khari breed would give a better result with respect to higher growth rate maintaining twinning ability of the crossbred female kids. The growth and reproductive performance of Khari goats crossbred with different exotic breeds is presented hereunder (see Tables 8 and 9).

n

nnnnnnn

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

Breed Body weight kg (mean ± SE)
At birth 4 M 6 M 9 M 12 M
Khari 1.75 ± 0.38 7.57 ± 2.33 11.02 ± 4.31 15.23 ± 6.17 19.24 ± 5.67
Sinhal 1.87 ± 0.10 11.22 ± 3.49 14.03 ± 3.12 17.34 ± 4.67 22.05 ± 5.68
Barberi 1.43 ± 0.42 7.35 ± 1.01 10.48 ± 1.88 14.40 ± 3.89 19.38 ± 4.89
50% Jamnapari 2.32 ± 0.65 9.11 ± 2.74 14.69 ± 4.60 18.38 ± 4.44 21.27 ± 5.06
50% Barberi 1.73 ± 0.28 6.87 ± 2.32 10.31 ± 1.26 14.35 ± 3.63 18.43 ± 4.21
50% Kiko 1.83 ± 0.72 7.86 ± 1.10 12.27 ± 3.68 17.81 ± 4.38 20.0 ± 3.97
50% Boer 2.20 ± 0.61 13.80 ± 3.29 17.85 ± 4.36 25.25 ± 5.88 34.10 ± 8.62

Table 8.

Growth performance of indigenous and crossbred goats at Goat Research Station (GRS), Bandipur.

Source: [30].

n

nnnnnnn

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

nn

n

n

n

n

n

n

nn

n

n

n

n

n

n

nn

n

n

n

n

n

n

Fixed factors No. Birth (BWT) Pre-weaning (PWW) Weaning (WWT) 6 months (SMW)
Grand mean 772 2.48 ± 0.03 7.04 ± 0.12 12.09 ± 0.22 20.52 ± 0.16
25% Boer:75% Khari:0% JP 232 2.38 ± 0.04b 7.03 ± 0.14ab 11.72 ± 0.26ab 20.70 ± 0.15b
25% Boer:50% Khari:25% JP 10 2.21 ± 0.09c 6.37 ± 0.30b 10.53 ± 0.55c 20.63 ± 0.90b
50% Boer:50% Khari:0% JP 218 2.69 ± 0.04ab 7.68 ± 0.14a 13.45 ± 0.26a 23.40 ± 0.19a
50% Boer:25% Khari:25% JP 16 2.86 ± 0.10a 7.55 ± 0.33a 13.62 ± 0.60a 23.91 ± 0.58a
0% Boer:100% Khari:0% JP 296 2.26 ± 0.04b 6.58 ± 0.15b 11.11 ± 0.27bc 18.05 ± 0.11c
Significance *** *** *** ***
CV 9.73 10.30 11.12 9.34
R2 0.61 0.53 0.54 0.58

Table 9.

Growth performance of Khari and its crossbred kids at different growth stages under farmers’ field.

***

Significant at 0.1% level of significance.

JP = Jamnapari. Source: [31].

n

Growth performance of Khari and its crossbred kids with different blood levels of Boer and Jamnapari breeds were studied [31], and it was reported that there was a significant difference (p < 0.001) between the crossbred kids of different blood levels with respect to birth, pre-weaning, weaning, and 6 months weight at their respective ages. Accordingly, the crossbred kids of a three-way cross with 50% Boer:25% Khari:25% Jamnapari blood level has the best result in the weight traits at different stages as compared to other blood levels (see Table 9).

n

At Goat Research Station, Bandipur, under Nepal Agricultural Research Council, 50% crossbred kids of Khari and Boer were evaluated. Preliminary results suggested that there is great scope and possibility of enhancing growth and productivity (average daily weight gain) of native Khari goat in later generation by producing crossbred kids of Boer goat. Body weight of 50% Boer crossbred kids at different stages of growth from birth to yearling age is presented hereunder (see Table 10).

n

nnnnnnn

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

nn

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

nn

nn

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

Age Male Female Overall
Weight (kg) ADWG (g) Weight (kg) ADWG (g) weight (kg)
Birth 2.92 ± 0.66 2.44 ± 0.83 2.68
Weaning (4 months) 16.37 ± 3.5 109.5 14.96 ± 1.95 102.25 15.66
Postweaning (8 months) 29.48 ± 1.32 109.37 25.32 ± 1.46 94.29 27.40
Yearling (12 months) 42.32 ± 1.49 107.09 38.87 ± 1.29 99.12 40.59

Table 10.

Growth performance of 50% Boer kids from birth to yearling age at Multiplier Herd, GRS, Bandipur.

Source: [32].

n

Furthermore, reproductive traits of Khari and its crossbred female kids are expressed differently in different genotypes (see Table 11). The trait value for important reproductive traits of female kids of different crosses is presented hereunder. Pictorial presentation of different crossbred goats in Nepal is provided in Figure 3.

n

nnnnnnnn

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

nn

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

nn

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

nn

n

n

n

n

n

nn

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

nnn

n

n

n

n

n

n

nnn

n

n

S N Reproductive traits Khari × Jamnapari Khari × Barbari Khari × Kiko Khari × Sannen Khari × Boer
1 Age at first kidding (d) 577 564 576 423
2 Kidding interval (d) 319 286 496 257
3 Twinning percentage 45.50 58.33 33.00 91
4 No of kids/doe/annum 1.79 2.09 2.6 2.55
5 No of kids weaned per doe per annum 1.28 1.60 1.14
6 Live weight gain per doe per annum (kg) 19.14 16.15 18.37

Table 11.

Some reproductive parameters of crossbred goats in Nepal.

Source: [28, 33].

n

Figure 3.

Crossbred goats at Goat Research Station, Bandipur (photo courtesy: Goat Research Station, Bandipur, Nepal).

n

n

n

n

6. Variation in genetic parameters

n

n

6.1. Heritability

n

Limited research has been carried out to estimate the genetic parameters of goat flocks in Nepal. Findings indicate that most of the desirable economic traits of goats in Nepal are moderately to highly heritable (see Table 12). Moderate to high heritability of the weight traits of Khari goat kids [16] indicated a relatively large contribution of additive genetic variance and potentiality for improving body weight in goats by selection. Similarly, increasing heritability of body weights of kids at the later stages of growth indicated that environmental factors have more influence on birth weight than on the weights achieved on the later stage of growth.

n

nnn

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

Traits Heritability (Harvey)
Birth weight 0.37 ± 0.12 [16]
Pre-weaning weigh 0.42 ± 0.13 [16]
Weaning weight 0.42 ± 0.13 [16]
6-month weight 0.46 ± 0.14 [16]
9-month weight 0.44 ± 0.13 [16]
12-month weight 0.40 ± 0.12 [16]
15-month weight 0.39 ± 0.12 [16]
Litter size at birth 0.10 ± 0.093 [34]
Litter size at weaning 0.05 ± 0.097 [34]
Litter weight at birth 0.44 ± 0.155 [34]
Litter weight at weaning 0.66 ± 0.202 [34]
Kidding interval 0.03 ± 0.099 [34]
Gestation length 0.21 ± 0.118 [34]

Table 12.

Heritability estimates for different traits of hill goat.

Source: [16, 34].

n

n

n

6.2. Genetic and phenotypic correlation

n

Past studies have revealed the genetic correlation among the weight traits at different stages of growth of Khari goat kids ranging from 0.61 to 0.96 (see Table 13). The high and positive genetic correlations of weaning weight at 6, 9, and 12 months of Khari goat kids indicate that they are all being controlled by similar genes, and thus selection for any one of these traits would lead to positive changes in the other [35, 36].

n

nnnnnnnnn

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

Body weight at Body weight at
Birth Pre-weaning Weaning 6 months 9 months 12 months 15 months
Birth 0.61** 0.71** 0.72** 0.76*** 0.79*** 0.78***
Pre-weaning 0.64** 0.81*** 0.80*** 0.75*** 0.65** 0.55*
Weaning 0.67** 0.80*** 0.95*** 0.86*** 0.78*** 0.68**
6 months 0.68** 0.75*** 0.91*** 0.93*** 0.85*** 0.76***
9 months 0.71** 0.69** 0.81*** 0.92*** 0.96*** 0.85***
12 months 0.70** 0.62** 0.75*** 0.83*** 0.94*** 0.95***
15 months 0.72** 0.56* 0.66** 0.76*** 0.86*** 0.94***

Table 13.

Genetic correlation (above diagonal) and phenotypic correlation (below the diagonal) between the weight traits of Khari goat kids at different stages of growth in Nawalparasi, Nepal.

*

Significant at 5% level (i.e., p < 0.05).

**

Significant at 1% level (i.e., p < 0.01).

***

Significant at 0.1% level (i.e., p < 0.001).

Source: [16].

n

Similarly, phenotypic correlation among the weight traits at different stages of growth of Khari goat kids ranged from 0.56 to 0.94 (see Table 13). Strong positive association among the weight traits of kids at all stages of growth indicates that selection for increased weight at earlier age will result in increased weight of kids at later stage of growth as reported by earlier studies [37].

n

n

n

n

7. Biotechnological approaches

n

Biotechnological advances particularly estrus synchronization, artificial insemination (AI), and embryo transfer (ET) have not been exploited widely so far in the country and could be the avenue of future goat development program. Lack of goat breeding centers for quality seed and ever-increasing demand on breeding stocks and chevon strongly justify the massive use of AI and ET in goat. National Livestock Breeding Center, Pokhara, and Animal Breeding Division, NARC, are being stepped up in the direction.

n

n

7.1. Estrus synchronization and artificial insemination

n

Synchronization of estrus allows the farmers to shorten the breeding season of their flock by bringing all of their does into heat around the same time so that they will kid at the same time. Other advantages of this technique include reducing the time required to check heat, reducing the time required for intensive care of the herd or flock, and pregnancy being able to be shifted to coincide with favorable marketing patterns. Controlled Internal Drug Release (CIDR) device is being used in conjunction with gonadotropin (pregnant mare serum gonadotropin) hormone to bring does into estrus.

n

Artificial insemination, in the developed countries, is the good example of how tremendous improvements can be made in both genetics and reproductive management of goats by using synchronization methods. In Nepal, frozen Boer goat semen (both pellet and straw) is being imported from India and Australia to upgrade Khari goats through AI at research stations, government farms, and multiplier herd identified at mid- and far-western regions of Nepal. However, the result of AI and conception obtained till date is not so convincing due to lack of skilled technicians, timely unavailability of liquid nitrogen at remote areas, and improper husbandry practices followed by farmers (grazing and feeding). Thus, AI program needs to be reviewed and practiced on station first to improve the conception rate before wide dissemination.

n

n

n

7.2. Embryo transfer

n

The Government of Nepal has established embryo transfer facilities at National Livestock Breeding Office (NLBO), Pokhara. Works have been started in dairy cattle and importation of live embryo, and transferring them to the recipient is being practiced occasionally in this species. However, this technology is not being tested in the case of goats to date in the country.

n

n

n

7.3. Biochemical analysis

n

It has been reported that the Khari/Hill goats across the mid-hill region from east to west of the country has three distinct types with respect to genetic distance. The goats of the midwestern are bigger in body size followed by western region with eastern region having a smaller body size. Also a report on protein analysis indicated that hemoglobin was polymorphic in Khari/Hill goats with two genotypes, HbAA and HbAB, in the sampled population. The gene frequency of HbA was higher than HbB, which was more in the goats sampled from eastern Nepal. Also, it has been reported that the four genotypes of transferrin, TfAA, TfAB, TfBB, and TfAC, were found in the Khari/Hill goats with decreasing frequencies. The gene frequency of TfA was the highest followed by TfB and TfC. The gene frequencies of TfB and TfC were higher in the goats of eastern Nepal. Both polymorphisms of these two principal blood proteins including differences in gene frequencies between the populations of Khari/Hill goats found in different locations indicated the genetic variation in Khari/Hill goats [38].

n

n

n

7.4. Mitochondrial DNA study

n

Nepal has a sizeable indigenous goat population with four identified breeds (Chyangra, Sinhal, Khari, and Terai) and many nondescript goats. The study on genetic diversity and phylogeography of these identified breeds’ mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable (HVI) region has shown high mtDNA diversity among Nepalese goat breeds with haplotype diversity ranging from 0.86 to 0.99, and all haplotypes could be classified into four haplogroups (A–D) (see Figure 4 and Table 14). mtDNA haplogroup A was observed in most of the Nepalese goat populations, whereas only one breed (Chyangra) contained all four haplogroups [12]. Chyangra has been classified in the haplogroup B2 which is found in Tibetan goats which exhibits their genetic relationship. The four mtDNA haplogroups A–D found in Nepalese goats further supported the previous view of multiple maternal origins of domestic goats. These results indicated that there was no correspondence between the geographic regions of origin and relationships among goat breeds. These sequences were compared with published data of other domestic goats from neighboring countries (Bhutan, India, Pakistan, and China) to determine the relationship of Nepalese goats among goat resources of the region. The study revealed certain level of gene flow among the neighboring goat populations. The complex mtDNA diversity and structure identified among indigenous Nepalese goats can be explained by the gene flow through ancient trading and current “free” movement of goats from/to the geographic vicinities in India and China.

n

Figure 4.

Haplogroups of Nepalese goats (haplogroups A–D). Source: [12].

n

nnnnnnnnn

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

nn

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

Breed/population No. of goats per haplogroups Haplotype diversity (h ± SD) Nucleotide diversity (π ± SD)
A B1 B2 C D
Chyangra 13 1 2 2 0.99 ± 0.02 0.03 ± 0.01
Sinhal 7 3 0.87 ± 0.09 0.03 ± 0.01
Khari—Ilam 11 1 0.86 ± 0.08 0.02 ± 0.01
Khari—Bandipur 10 8 1 0.94 ± 0.04 0.03 ± 0.03
Khari—Salyan 13 1 0.95 ± 0.05 0.02 ± 0.01
Terai 15 5 0.97 ± 0.03 0.03 ± 0.02

Table 14.

Distribution of mtDNA haplogroups in Nepalese goat breeds/populations.

Source: [12].

n

These sequences were further compared with the published sequences of Asian domestic and wild goats to determine the relationship of Nepalese goats among goat resources in the region (Bhutan, Pakistan, India, and China). The results suggested that the genetic diversity and structure in mtDNA genome among indigenous Nepalese goats have been shaped not only by the intensive and continuous gene flow among goats distributed in middle and lowland in Nepal and geographical vicinity in India but also by the exchanges between goats found in high hill of Nepal (e.g., the B2 haplotype present in Chyangra goats) and Tibetan goats in China.

n

n

n

n

8. Conclusions

n

Goat industry in Nepal is becoming popular among the commercial farmers, and it is assumed that the future prospects of the species are quite promising. Goats, as an animal with multiple utilities, have high adaptability in diversified climatic condition right from extreme hot to extreme cold. However, goats in Nepal have limitations in terms of body weight gain and market weight. There is opportunity for improving productivity of existing goats without increasing the total population based on the application of animal breeding technology along with advances in husbandry and disease control measures that have demonstrated success, worldwide. The need to reorient development activities by adding value to indigenous breeds must be focused. Crossbreeding of native goat breeds such as Chyangra and Sinhal in the mountain region is not gainful so far. Selection and mating of the best male to the best doe is only the option to improve the genetic potentiality of these breeds in the region. The importation of exotic breeds for crossbreeding particularly in the hill and mid-hill regions may not be meaningful unless provision for feed with increased nutrient requirements and disease control measures are readily available to the herders.

  • Genetic gain depends upon the selection difference, response to selection, heritability, and generation interval.

  • Heritability of the reproductive traits is lower (<0.15), production traits such as milk production are medium (0.15–0.30), and growth-related traits are higher (>0.3).

  • Selection can be one of the tools, but only selection cannot improve all the economic traits of goat.

  • Attention should be given in the selection process for the appropriate traits, pedigree recording, feeding, health care, and management for the goat productivity enhancement in Nepal.

  • Crossbreeding of Nepalese hill goat with Boer goat is giving a better result with respect to growth and reproductive performance initially. However, further evaluation is needed for valid conclusion.

n

n

Acknowledgments

n

Authors would like to acknowledge the scientists, researchers, and academicians who contributed a lot in the area of goat research and development in Nepal. We express our sincere gratitude to the staffs and faculty members of Animal Breeding Division, NARC, Khumaltar, Nepal, and Department of Animal Breeding and Biotechnology, Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal, for their cooperation while preparing this manuscript. In addition, we would like to thank the International Goat Association for providing the opportunity to be a part of this historic scientific publication.

n

Conflict of interest

Authors do not have any conflict of interest.

n’,keywords:”goats, indigenous, breeds, growth, nucleus, multiplier herd”,chapterPDFUrl:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/68548.pdf”,chapterXML:”https://mts.intechopen.com/source/xml/68548.xml”,downloadPdfUrl:”/chapter/pdf-download/68548″,previewPdfUrl:”/chapter/pdf-preview/68548″,totalDownloads:127,totalViews:0,totalCrossrefCites:0,dateSubmitted:”July 30th 2018″,dateReviewed:”November 30th 2018″,datePrePublished:”August 13th 2019″,datePublished:null,readingETA:”0″,abstract:”Goats are the indispensable component of rural economy in Nepal where 10.98 million goats accounting for 45.3% of total ruminants contribute to 20.3% of the total meat production and 49.2 million US dollar in the national economy. Being popular as “poor man’s cow” and “living cheque,” they significantly contribute to food, nutritional, and economic security of the marginalized farmers creating employment opportunities in the country. This chapter has tried to review the existing breeds, their breeding systems, challenges and way forward to enhance production and productivity of goats. Findings revealed that Nepal is endowed with four major indigenous genetic resources of goats and their crosses with Boer, Jamnapari, Barbari, Sirohi, etc. Occasionally, native goat breeds of Nepal were crossed with Kiko and Damascus as well. Breeding of goats in Nepal is mainly based on selection, pure breeding within indigenous flock, and crossbreeding to the available exotic breeds. There have been some biotechnological approaches applied in goat breeding and evaluation of native breeds. Estrus synchronization followed by artificial insemination is currently being practiced. Goats, being the most popular and easy source of household income and family nutrition in Nepal, could be the important source of national revenue provided with improved breeding and other husbandry practices.”,reviewType:”peer-reviewed”,bibtexUrl:”/chapter/bibtex/68548″,risUrl:”/chapter/ris/68548″,signatures:”Nirajan Bhattarai, Neena Amatya Gorkhali, Manaraj Kolakshyapati and Saroj Sapkota”,book:{id:”7019″,title:”Goats (Capra)”,subtitle:null,fullTitle:”Goats (Capra)”,slug:null,publishedDate:null,bookSignature:”Prof. Sándor Kukovics”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/7019.jpg”,licenceType:”CC BY 3.0″,editedByType:null,editors:[{id:”25894″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Sándor”,middleName:null,surname:”Kukovics”,slug:”sandor-kukovics”,fullName:”Sándor Kukovics”}],productType:{id:”1″,title:”Edited Volume”,chapterContentType:”chapter”,authoredCaption:”Edited by”}},authors:null,sections:[{id:”sec_1″,title:”1. Introduction”,level:”1″},{id:”sec_2″,title:”2. Materials and methods”,level:”1″},{id:”sec_3″,title:”3. Population and its distribution of goats in Nepal”,level:”1″},{id:”sec_4″,title:”4. Diversity of goat genetic resources in Nepal”,level:”1″},{id:”sec_4_2″,title:”4.1. Existing indigenous genetic resources”,level:”2″},{id:”sec_4_3″,title:”4.1.1. Terai”,level:”3″},{id:”sec_5_3″,title:”Table 3.”,level:”3″},{id:”sec_6_3″,title:”4.1.3. Sinhal”,level:”3″},{id:”sec_7_3″,title:”Table 5.”,level:”3″},{id:”sec_8_3″,title:”4.1.5. Chitwan local goats”,level:”3″},{id:”sec_10_2″,title:”4.2. Popular exotic breeds of goats in Nepal”,level:”2″},{id:”sec_10_3″,title:”4.2.1. Jamnapari”,level:”3″},{id:”sec_11_3″,title:”4.2.2. Barbari”,level:”3″},{id:”sec_12_3″,title:”Table 6.”,level:”3″},{id:”sec_13_3″,title:”4.2.4. Boer”,level:”3″},{id:”sec_14_3″,title:”4.2.5. Saanen”,level:”3″},{id:”sec_15_3″,title:”4.2.6. Beetal”,level:”3″},{id:”sec_18″,title:”5. Breeding management”,level:”1″},{id:”sec_18_2″,title:”5.1. Selection”,level:”2″},{id:”sec_19_2″,title:”5.2. Pure breeding”,level:”2″},{id:”sec_20_2″,title:”5.3. Crossbreeding”,level:”2″},{id:”sec_22″,title:”6. Variation in genetic parameters”,level:”1″},{id:”sec_22_2″,title:”6.1. Heritability”,level:”2″},{id:”sec_23_2″,title:”6.2. Genetic and phenotypic correlation”,level:”2″},{id:”sec_25″,title:”7. Biotechnological approaches”,level:”1″},{id:”sec_25_2″,title:”7.1. Estrus synchronization and artificial insemination”,level:”2″},{id:”sec_26_2″,title:”7.2. Embryo transfer”,level:”2″},{id:”sec_27_2″,title:”7.3. Biochemical analysis”,level:”2″},{id:”sec_28_2″,title:”7.4. Mitochondrial DNA study”,level:”2″},{id:”sec_30″,title:”8. Conclusions”,level:”1″},{id:”sec_31″,title:”Acknowledgments”,level:”1″},{id:”sec_34″,title:”Conflict of interest”,level:”1″}],chapterReferences:[{id:”B1″,body:’ILRI. Livestock, a Pathway Out of Poverty: ILRI Strategy to 2010. Nairobi: International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI); 2003n’},{id:”B2″,body:’CBS. Central Bureau of Statistics. Singhdurbar, Kathmandu, Nepal: Agribusiness Promotion and Statistics Division; 2017n’},{id:”B3″,body:’MALD. Annual Progress Report. Singhdurbar, Kathmandu, Nepal: Government of Nepal, Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development; 2017n’},{id:”B4″,body:’Bhattarai N, Sharma M,Kolachhapati MR, Devkota NR.Morphometric variation and productive performance of local Terai goat under farmers managed condition in Siraha, Nepal. Journal of Institute of Agriculture and Animal Sciences. 2009;30:233-240n’},{id:”B5″,body:’HVAP. Value Chain Analysis of Goats. High Value Agriculture Project for Hills and Mountains. Birendranagar, Surkhet, Nepal: Government of Nepal, Ministry of Agricultural Development; 2011n’},{id:”B6″,body:’DLS. Annual Progress Report. Hariharbhavan, Lalitpur, Nepal: Government of Nepal, Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development, Department of Livestock Services; 2016n’},{id:”B7″,body:’Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provinces_of_Nepalnn’},{id:”B8″,body:’Pradhan SL, Gurung NK. Comparative performance of Khari (local hill goat) and its crossbred with Jamnapari of central goat farm, Bandipur. Nepalese Journal of Animal Sciences. 1985;1(1):35-40n’},{id:”B9″,body:’Shrestha NP. Animal genetic diversity of Nepal. In: Kuwar BS, Shrestha HR editors. Proceedings of 1st National workshop on Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal; Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal: NARC, National Animal Science Research Institute; 1996. pp. 55-61n’},{id:”B10″,body:’Kharel M. Goat (Capra hircus) genetic resources in Nepal. Veterinary Review. 1997;12(1):14-16n’},{id:”B11″,body:’Neopane SP. Genetics of productive traits in a Nepalese Hill goat flock [PhD thesis]. UK: University of London; 1997. p. 278n’},{id:”B12″,body:’Gorkhali NA, Shrestha BS, Ma Y-H, Han J-L. Mitochondrial genetic diversity in domestic goats of Nepal. In: Proceeding of the 16th Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) Congress; 10-14 November 2014; Yogyakarta, Indonesia: Gadjah Mada University; Vol. II: 2014. pp. 109-112n’},{id:”B13″,body:’Pokharel PK, Neopane SP, Sapkota S, Kadel R. Indigenous Livestock Species of Nepal: An Introduction (In Nepali). Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal: Animal Breeding Division. National Animal Science Research Institute (NASRI), Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC); 2012. ISBN: 978-9937-2-5656-8n’},{id:”B14″,body:’ABD. Annual Progress Report. Khumaltar, Lalitpur: Animal Breeding Division, Nepal Agricultural Research Council; 2003n’},{id:”B15″,body:’Kharel M, Neopane SP. Goat genetic resources. In: JNB S, editor. Proceedings of the First National Workshop on Animal Genetic Resources Conservation and Genetic Improvement of Domestic Animals in Nepal. Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal: Nepal Agricultural Research Council; 1998. pp. 48-54n’},{id:”B16″,body:’Bhattarai N, Kolachhapati MR, Devkota NR, Thakur UC, Neopane SP. Estimation of genetic parameters of growth traits of Khari goats (Capra hircus L.) in Nawalparasi, Nepal. International Journal of Livestock Research. 2017;7(1):80-89. DOI: 10.5455/ijlr.20161218124223. ISSN: 2277-1964n’},{id:”B17″,body:’Rasali DP, Khanal RC. Productive performance of indigenous strains of goats under Lamjung farm management: Khari goats and Khari x Sinhal crosses. LARC Working Paper No. 98/1. Kaski: Lamjung Agricultural Research Center; 1998. p. 9n’},{id:”B18″,body:’Oli KP. Goat Breed Comparison Study in Hattikharka Panchayat. Technical Paper No. 93. Dhankuta: Pakhribas Agriculture Centre; 1987n’},{id:”B19″,body:’Kuwar BS. Identification of different types and sub-types in Hill goats through morphological and bio-chemical analysis [MSc thesis]. Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal: Tribhuvan University/Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science; 2000n’},{id:”B20″,body:’FAO. Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations statistical databases. 2010. Available from: http://faostat.fao.org/nn’},{id:”B21″,body:’Pokharel PK, Neopane SP. Study on productivity improvement of hill-goat through selective breeding program. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology. 2006;7:7-14. ISSN 1994-1412n’},{id:”B22″,body:’ABD. Annual Progress Report. Khumaltar, Lalitpur: Animal Breeding Division, Nepal Agricultural Research Council; 1997n’},{id:”B23″,body:’Upreti CR, Khakural GP, Khanal RR. Study on the existing goat production system, productive performance and associated constrains on different goat at farmers condition. In: Proceeding of the Fourth National Outreach Research Workshop; Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal: Out-reach Research Division Nepal Agriculture Research Council; 1998n’},{id:”B24″,body:’Tiwari MR, Neopane SP, Tamrakar NL. Evaluation of native goats (Sinhal and Chyangra) for morphological characteristics and production performance. In: Proceedings of Fifth National Workshop on Livestock and Fisheries Research; 10-11 July 2002; Kathmandu, Nepal. 2002. pp. 97-102n’},{id:”B25″,body:’Bandipur ARS. Annual Report. Agriculture Research Station (Goats). Bandipur, Tanahun, Nepal: Nepal Agricultural Research Council; 2007n’},{id:”B26″,body:’Sapkota S, Kolachhapati MR, Devkota NR, Neopane SP. Comparison and estimation of the non-genetic factors on reproductive traits of goat of eastern, Western and central developmental regions of Nepal. Journal of Institute of Agriculture and Animal Sciences. 2007;28:97-104. ISSN: 2091-0134n’},{id:”B27″,body:’Sapkota S. Comparative performance of goat representing Eastern, Western and Central Regions of Nepal [MSc thesis]. Rampur, Chitwan: Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science; 2007n’},{id:”B28″,body:’Joshi BR, Shrestha BS. The Goats, Their Production and Health Management. 2003. pp. 11-18n’},{id:”B29″,body:’Neopane SP. Improvement of Hill goats through selection. In: Proceedings of the Third National Conference on Science and Technology organized by Royal Nepal Academy for Science and Technology; Volume II; 8-11 March 1999; Kathmandu; 1999. pp. 1105-1110n’},{id:”B30″,body:’GRS. Annual Progress Report for the Fiscal Year 2010/11. Goat Research Station, Bandipur. Singhdurbar, Kathmandu, Nepal: Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC); 2011n’},{id:”B31″,body:’Gautam. Comparative evaluation of growth performance of Khari and its crosses with different blood level of Boer goat in the western hills of Nepal [MSc thesis]. Sanepa, Lalitpur, Nepal: Tribhuvan University, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science; 2017n’},{id:”B32″,body:’Kadel R, Malla S, Ghimire SH, BB KC, Shrestha PB, Dahal M, et al. Information on Boer Goat Production in Nepal. Goat Research Station (GRS), Bandipur, Tanahu, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Government of Nepal FY 2016/17; 2017n’},{id:”B33″,body:’GRS. Annual Progress Report 2017. Goat Research Station, Bandipur: Nepal Agricultural Research Council; 2018n’},{id:”B34″,body:’Neopane SP. Genetic potential of hill goats: Conservation through improvement. In: Proceedings of the Fourth Global Conference on Conservation of Domestic Animal Genetic Resources. Nepal Agricultural Research Council and Rare Breeds International; 17-21 August; Kathmandu, Nepal; 2000. pp. 27-29n’},{id:”B35″,body:’Hasan F, Jakaria J, Gunawan A. Genetic and phenotypic parameters of body weight in Ettawa grade goats. Media Peternakan. 2014;37(1):8-16n’},{id:”B36″,body:’Boujenane I, El Hazzab A. Genetic parameters for direct and maternal effect on body weights of Draa goats. Small Ruminant Research. 2008;80:16-21n’},{id:”B37″,body:’Bosso NA, Cisse MF, van der Waaij EH, Fall A, van Arendonk JAM. Genetic and phenotypic parameters of body weight in west African dwarf goat and Djallonke sheep. Small Ruminant Research. 2007;67:271-278n’},{id:”B38″,body:’Kuwar BS, Kharel M, Neopane SP. Hemoglobin and transferrin polymorphism in Nepalese hill goats. In: Proceedings of the 4th National Animal Science Convention. Nepal Animal Science Association (NASA); 29 November–December 1 2000; Kathmandu, Nepal; 2001. pp. 141-151n’}],footnotes:[],contributors:[{corresp:null,contributorFullName:”Nirajan Bhattarai”,address:null,affiliation:’

  • Department of Animal Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Animal Science, Veterinary Science and Fisheries, Nepal
  • Agriculture and Forestry University, Nepal

‘},{corresp:null,contributorFullName:”Neena Amatya Gorkhali”,address:null,affiliation:’

  • Animal Breeding Division, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Khumaltar, Nepal

‘},{corresp:null,contributorFullName:”Manaraj Kolakshyapati”,address:null,affiliation:’

  • Agriculture and Forestry University, Nepal

‘},{corresp:”yes”,contributorFullName:”Saroj Sapkota”,address:”sarose.sapkota@gmail.com”,affiliation:’

  • Animal Breeding Division, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Khumaltar, Nepal

‘}],corrections:null},book:{id:”7019″,title:”Goats (Capra)”,subtitle:null,fullTitle:”Goats (Capra)”,slug:null,publishedDate:null,bookSignature:”Prof. Sándor Kukovics”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/7019.jpg”,licenceType:”CC BY 3.0″,editedByType:null,editors:[{id:”25894″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Sándor”,middleName:null,surname:”Kukovics”,slug:”sandor-kukovics”,fullName:”Sándor Kukovics”}],productType:{id:”1″,title:”Edited Volume”,chapterContentType:”chapter”,authoredCaption:”Edited by”}}},profile:{item:{id:”98324″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Adel”,middleName:null,surname:”El-Sonbati”,email:”elsonbatisch@yahoo.com”,fullName:”Adel El-Sonbati”,slug:”adel-el-sonbati”,position:null,biography:”Prof. Adel Z. El-Sonbati received his M.Sc. from the University of Mansoura, Egypt in 1978 and a Ph.D. in coordination chemistry from the University of Tanta, Egypt in 1983. He worked as a lecturer at the Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Demiatta, Egypt. In 1987 he was promoted to an assistant professor. Since 1991, he is a full professor of inorganic chemistry. He is one of the editorial board members in the Journal of Spectroscopy and Dynamics. He has supervised more than 35 M.Sc. and 20 Ph.D. students. Prof. El-Sonbati has published over 150 scientific papers. His current research interests are synthesis and characterization of supramolecular polymers, supramolecular polymer complexes, conducting polymers and polymer complexes, preparation and characterization of heterocyclic/polymers of uranyl complexes by using the El-Sonbati equation, thermal stability and mechanism of degradation of homopolymers and copolymers, and application of potentiometer and spectrometer for the determination of the dissociation and stability constant of some polymers and their complexes with transition elements.”,institutionString:null,profilePictureURL:”https://mts.intechopen.com/storage/users/98324/images/3821_n.jpg”,totalCites:0,totalChapterViews:”0″,outsideEditionCount:0,totalAuthoredChapters:”1″,totalEditedBooks:”2″,personalWebsiteURL:null,twitterURL:null,linkedinURL:null,institution:{name:”Mansoura University”,institutionURL:null,country:{name:”Egypt”}}},booksEdited:[{type:”book”,slug:”thermoplastic-elastomers”,title:”Thermoplastic Elastomers”,subtitle:null,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/1573.jpg”,abstract:’Thermoplastics can be used for various applications, which range from household articles to the aeronautic sector. This book, “Thermoplastic Elastomers”, is comprised of nineteen chapters, written by specialized scientists dealing with physical and/or chemical modifications of thermoplastics and thermoplastic starch. Such studies will provide a great benefit to specialists in food, electric, telecommunication devices, and plastic industries. Each chapter provides a comprehensive introduction to a specific topic, with a survey of developments to date.’,editors:[{id:”98324″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Adel”,surname:”El-Sonbati”,slug:”adel-el-sonbati”,fullName:”Adel El-Sonbati”}],productType:{id:”1″,title:”Edited Volume”}},{type:”book”,slug:”thermoplastic-composite-materials”,title:”Thermoplastic”,subtitle:”Composite Materials”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/2249.jpg”,abstract:’Composite materials often demand a unique combination of properties, including high thermal and oxidative stability, toughness, solvent resistance and low dielectric constant. This book, “Thermoplastic – Composite Materials”, is comprised of seven excellent chapters, written for all specialized scientists and engineers dealing with characterization, thermal, mechanical and technical properties, rheological, morphological and microstructure properties and processing design of composite materials.’,editors:[{id:”98324″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Adel”,surname:”El-Sonbati”,slug:”adel-el-sonbati”,fullName:”Adel El-Sonbati”}],productType:{id:”1″,title:”Edited Volume”}}],chaptersAuthored:[{title:”Stoichiometry of Polymer Complexes”,slug:”stiochiometry-of-polymer-complexes”,abstract:null,signatures:”A.Z. El-Sonbati, M.A. Diab and A.A. El-Bindary”,authors:[{id:”98324″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Adel”,surname:”El-Sonbati”,fullName:”Adel El-Sonbati”,slug:”adel-el-sonbati”,email:”elsonbatisch@yahoo.com”}],book:{title:”Stoichiometry and Research”,slug:”stoichiometry-and-research-the-importance-of-quantity-in-biomedicine”,productType:{id:”1″,title:”Edited Volume”}}}],collaborators:[{id:”89880″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Flor De Maria”,surname:”Ramirez”,slug:”flor-de-maria-ramirez”,fullName:”Flor De Maria Ramirez”,position:null,profilePictureURL:”//cdnintech.com/web/frontend/www/assets/author.svg”,biography:null,institutionString:null,institution:{name:”Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares”,institutionURL:null,country:{name:”Mexico”}}},{id:”94437″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Tjoon Tow”,surname:”Teng”,slug:”tjoon-tow-teng”,fullName:”Tjoon Tow Teng”,position:null,profilePictureURL:”//cdnintech.com/web/frontend/www/assets/author.svg”,biography:null,institutionString:null,institution:{name:”Universiti Sains Malaysia”,institutionURL:null,country:{name:”Malaysia”}}},{id:”96850″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Taisun”,surname:”Kim”,slug:”taisun-kim”,fullName:”Taisun Kim”,position:null,profilePictureURL:”//cdnintech.com/web/frontend/www/assets/author.svg”,biography:null,institutionString:null,institution:{name:”Hallym University”,institutionURL:null,country:{name:”Korea, South”}}},{id:”99517″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Mihaela”,surname:”Hillebrand”,slug:”mihaela-hillebrand”,fullName:”Mihaela Hillebrand”,position:null,profilePictureURL:”//cdnintech.com/web/frontend/www/assets/author.svg”,biography:null,institutionString:null,institution:{name:”University of Bucharest”,institutionURL:null,country:{name:”Romania”}}},{id:”100204″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Satish”,surname:”Nimse”,slug:”satish-nimse”,fullName:”Satish Nimse”,position:null,profilePictureURL:”https://mts.intechopen.com/storage/users/100204/images/2054_n.jpg”,biography:null,institutionString:null,institution:{name:”Hallym University”,institutionURL:null,country:{name:”Korea, South”}}},{id:”100712″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Cristina”,surname:”Tablet”,slug:”cristina-tablet”,fullName:”Cristina Tablet”,position:null,profilePictureURL:”//cdnintech.com/web/frontend/www/assets/author.svg”,biography:null,institutionString:null,institution:{name:”University of Bucharest”,institutionURL:null,country:{name:”Romania”}}},{id:”100714″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Iulia”,surname:”Matei”,slug:”iulia-matei”,fullName:”Iulia Matei”,position:null,profilePictureURL:”//cdnintech.com/web/frontend/www/assets/author.svg”,biography:null,institutionString:null,institution:{name:”University of Bucharest”,institutionURL:null,country:{name:”Romania”}}},{id:”104816″,title:”MSc.”,name:”Ling Wei”,surname:”Low”,slug:”ling-wei-low”,fullName:”Ling Wei Low”,position:null,profilePictureURL:”//cdnintech.com/web/frontend/www/assets/author.svg”,biography:null,institutionString:null,institution:null},{id:”105382″,title:”Dr”,name:”Ahmed”,surname:”El-Sherif”,slug:”ahmed-el-sherif”,fullName:”Ahmed El-Sherif”,position:null,profilePictureURL:”//cdnintech.com/web/frontend/www/assets/author.svg”,biography:null,institutionString:null,institution:null},{id:”137758″,title:”Ms.”,name:”Irma”,surname:”Garcia-Sosa”,slug:”irma-garcia-sosa”,fullName:”Irma Garcia-Sosa”,position:null,profilePictureURL:”//cdnintech.com/web/frontend/www/assets/author.svg”,biography:null,institutionString:null,institution:null}]},generic:{page:{slug:”publish-a-whole-book”,title:”Publish a Whole Book”,intro:”

At IntechOpen, we not only specialize in the publication of Book Chapters as part of our Edited Volumes, but also the publication and dissemination of longer manuscripts, known as Long Form Monographs. Monographs allow Authors to focus on presenting a single subject or a specific aspect of that subject and publish their research in detail.

nn

Even if you have an area of research that does not at first sight fit within a previously defined IntechOpen project, we can still offer support and help you in publishing your individual research. Publishing your IntechOpen book in the form of a Long Form Monograph is a viable alternative.

“,metaTitle:”Publish a Whole Book”,metaDescription:”At IntechOpen, we not only specialize in the publication of book chapters as part of our Edited Volumes, but also the publication and dissemination of long form manuscripts, known as monographs. Monographs allow authors to focus on presenting a single subject or a specific aspect of that subject and publish their research at length.nnPerhaps you have an area of research that does not fit within a previously defined IntechOpen project, but rather need help in publishing your individual research? Publishing your IntechOpen book in the form of a long form monograph is a great alternative.”,metaKeywords:null,canonicalURL:”/page/publish-a-whole-book”,contentRaw:'[{“type”:”htmlEditorComponent”,”content”:”

MONOGRAPH – LONG FORM MANUSCRIPT

\n\n

    \n\t

  • 130 – 500 pages
  • \n\t

  • A self-contained work on a particular subject, or an aspect of it, written by one or more authors
  • \n\t

  • Primary research and original scholarship presented in detail
  • \n

\n\n

FORMATS

\n\n

    \n\t

  • Single or multiple author manuscript
  • \n\t

  • Edited Book – an edited collection of chapters contributed by various authors
  • \n\t

  • Conference Proceedings – collection of papers presented at a conference published in book format
  • \n

\n\n

COST

\n\n

10,000 GBP Monograph – Long Form

\n\n

The final price includes project management, editorial and peer-review services, technical editing, language copyediting, cover design, book layout, book promotion and ISBN assignment.

\n\n

*The price does not include Value-Added Tax (VAT). Residents of European Union countries need to add VAT based on the specific rate applied in their country of residence. Institutions and companies registered as VAT taxable entities in their own EU member state will not pay VAT by providing us with their VAT registration number. This is made possible by the EU reverse charge method.

\n\n

Optional Services

\n\n

IntechOpen has collaborated with Enago, through its sister brand, Ulatus, which is one of the world’s leading providers of book translation services. The services are designed to convey the essence of your work to readers from across the globe in a language they understand. Enago’s expert translators incorporate cultural nuances in translations to make the content relevant for local audiences while retaining the original meaning and style. Enago translators are equipped to handle all complex and multiple overlapping themes encompassed in a single book and their high degree of linguistic and subject expertise enables them to deliver a superior quality output.

\n\n

IntechOpen Authors that wish to use this service will receive a 20% discount on all translation services. To find out more information or obtain a quote, please visit: https://www.enago.com/intech.

\n\n

FUNDING

\n\n

We feel that financial barriers should never prevent researchers from publishing their work. Please consult our Open Access Funding page to explore funding opportunities and learn more about how you can finance your IntechOpen publication.

\n\n

BENEFITS

\n\n

    \n\t

  • Your published content is immediately available to read, share and download for free
  • \n\t

  • 560,000 monthly visitors to intechopen.com
  • \n\t

  • +84,800 Web Of Science citations
  • \n\t

  • You retain copyright to your work
  • \n\t

  • Chapter and book statistics performance reports allowing you to examine the reach of your content
  • \n\t

  • Full PDF version of your book available to download
  • \n\t

  • Rapid publishing process with personal support
  • \n\t

  • Competitive pricing for publishing services and print products
  • \n

\n\n

PUBLISHING PROCESS STEPS

\n\n

For a complete overview of all publishing process steps and descriptions, go to How Open Access Publishing Works.

\n\n

SEND YOUR PROPOSAL

\n\n

If you are interested in publishing your book with IntechOpen, please submit your book proposal by completing the Publish Proposal Form

\n\n

Not sure if this is the right option for you? Please refer back to the main Publish with IntechOpen page or feel free to contact us directly at book.department@intechopen.com.

\n”}]’},components:[{type:”htmlEditorComponent”,content:’

MONOGRAPH – LONG FORM MANUSCRIPT

nn

    nt

  • 130 – 500 pages
  • nt

  • A self-contained work on a particular subject, or an aspect of it, written by one or more authors
  • nt

  • Primary research and original scholarship presented in detail
  • n

nn

FORMATS

nn

    nt

  • Single or multiple author manuscript
  • nt

  • Edited Book – an edited collection of chapters contributed by various authors
  • nt

  • Conference Proceedings – collection of papers presented at a conference published in book format
  • n

nn

COST

nn

10,000 GBP Monograph – Long Form

nn

The final price includes project management, editorial and peer-review services, technical editing, language copyediting, cover design, book layout, book promotion and ISBN assignment.

nn

*The price does not include Value-Added Tax (VAT). Residents of European Union countries need to add VAT based on the specific rate applied in their country of residence. Institutions and companies registered as VAT taxable entities in their own EU member state will not pay VAT by providing us with their VAT registration number. This is made possible by the EU reverse charge method.

nn

Optional Services

nn

IntechOpen has collaborated with Enago, through its sister brand, Ulatus, which is one of the world’s leading providers of book translation services. The services are designed to convey the essence of your work to readers from across the globe in a language they understand. Enago’s expert translators incorporate cultural nuances in translations to make the content relevant for local audiences while retaining the original meaning and style. Enago translators are equipped to handle all complex and multiple overlapping themes encompassed in a single book and their high degree of linguistic and subject expertise enables them to deliver a superior quality output.

nn

IntechOpen Authors that wish to use this service will receive a 20% discount on all translation services. To find out more information or obtain a quote, please visit: https://www.enago.com/intech.

nn

FUNDING

nn

We feel that financial barriers should never prevent researchers from publishing their work. Please consult our Open Access Funding page to explore funding opportunities and learn more about how you can finance your IntechOpen publication.

nn

BENEFITS

nn

    nt

  • Your published content is immediately available to read, share and download for free
  • nt

  • 560,000 monthly visitors to intechopen.com
  • nt

  • +84,800 Web Of Science citations
  • nt

  • You retain copyright to your work
  • nt

  • Chapter and book statistics performance reports allowing you to examine the reach of your content
  • nt

  • Full PDF version of your book available to download
  • nt

  • Rapid publishing process with personal support
  • nt

  • Competitive pricing for publishing services and print products
  • n

nn

PUBLISHING PROCESS STEPS

nn

For a complete overview of all publishing process steps and descriptions, go to How Open Access Publishing Works.

nn

SEND YOUR PROPOSAL

nn

If you are interested in publishing your book with IntechOpen, please submit your book proposal by completing the Publish Proposal Form

nn

Not sure if this is the right option for you? Please refer back to the main Publish with IntechOpen page or feel free to contact us directly at book.department@intechopen.com.

n’}]},successStories:{items:[]},authorsAndEditors:{filterParams:{sort:”featured,name”},profiles:[{id:”6700″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Abbass A.”,middleName:null,surname:”Hashim”,slug:”abbass-a.-hashim”,fullName:”Abbass A. Hashim”,position:null,profilePictureURL:”https://mts.intechopen.com/storage/users/6700/images/1864_n.jpg”,biography:”Currently I am carrying out research in several areas of interest, mainly covering work on chemical and bio-sensors, semiconductor thin film device fabrication and characterisation.nAt the moment I have very strong interest in radiation environmental pollution and bacteriology treatment. The teams of researchers are working very hard to bring novel results in this field. I am also a member of the team in charge for the supervision of Ph.D. students in the fields of development of silicon based planar waveguide sensor devices, study of inelastic electron tunnelling in planar tunnelling nanostructures for sensing applications and development of organotellurium(IV) compounds for semiconductor applications. I am a specialist in data analysis techniques and nanosurface structure. I have served as the editor for many books, been a member of the editorial board in science journals, have published many papers and hold many patents.”,institutionString:null,institution:{name:”Sheffield Hallam University”,country:{name:”United Kingdom”}}},{id:”54525″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Abdul Latif”,middleName:null,surname:”Ahmad”,slug:”abdul-latif-ahmad”,fullName:”Abdul Latif Ahmad”,position:null,profilePictureURL:”//cdnintech.com/web/frontend/www/assets/author.svg”,biography:null,institutionString:null,institution:null},{id:”20567″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Ado”,middleName:null,surname:”Jorio”,slug:”ado-jorio”,fullName:”Ado Jorio”,position:null,profilePictureURL:”//cdnintech.com/web/frontend/www/assets/author.svg”,biography:null,institutionString:null,institution:{name:”Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais”,country:{name:”Brazil”}}},{id:”47940″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Alberto”,middleName:null,surname:”Mantovani”,slug:”alberto-mantovani”,fullName:”Alberto Mantovani”,position:null,profilePictureURL:”//cdnintech.com/web/frontend/www/assets/author.svg”,biography:null,institutionString:null,institution:null},{id:”12392″,title:”Mr.”,name:”Alex”,middleName:null,surname:”Lazinica”,slug:”alex-lazinica”,fullName:”Alex Lazinica”,position:null,profilePictureURL:”https://mts.intechopen.com/storage/users/12392/images/7282_n.png”,biography:”Alex Lazinica is the founder and CEO of IntechOpen. After obtaining a Master’s degree in Mechanical Engineering, he continued his PhD studies in Robotics at the Vienna University of Technology. Here he worked as a robotic researcher with the university’s Intelligent Manufacturing Systems Group as well as a guest researcher at various European universities, including the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL). During this time he published more than 20 scientific papers, gave presentations, served as a reviewer for major robotic journals and conferences and most importantly he co-founded and built the International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems- world’s first Open Access journal in the field of robotics. Starting this journal was a pivotal point in his career, since it was a pathway to founding IntechOpen – Open Access publisher focused on addressing academic researchers needs. Alex is a personification of IntechOpen key values being trusted, open and entrepreneurial. Today his focus is on defining the growth and development strategy for the company.”,institutionString:null,institution:{name:”TU Wien”,country:{name:”Austria”}}},{id:”19816″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Alexander”,middleName:null,surname:”Kokorin”,slug:”alexander-kokorin”,fullName:”Alexander Kokorin”,position:null,profilePictureURL:”https://mts.intechopen.com/storage/users/19816/images/1607_n.jpg”,biography:”Alexander I. Kokorin: born: 1947, Moscow; DSc., PhD; Principal Research Fellow (Research Professor) of Department of Kinetics and Catalysis, N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.nArea of research interests: physical chemistry of complex-organized molecular and nanosized systems, including polymer-metal complexes; the surface of doped oxide semiconductors. He is an expert in structural, absorptive, catalytic and photocatalytic properties, in structural organization and dynamic features of ionic liquids, in magnetic interactions between paramagnetic centers. The author or co-author of 3 books, over 200 articles and reviews in scientific journals and books. He is an actual member of the International EPR/ESR Society, European Society on Quantum Solar Energy Conversion, Moscow House of Scientists, of the Board of Moscow Physical Society.”,institutionString:null,institution:null},{id:”62389″,title:”PhD.”,name:”Ali Demir”,middleName:null,surname:”Sezer”,slug:”ali-demir-sezer”,fullName:”Ali Demir Sezer”,position:null,profilePictureURL:”https://mts.intechopen.com/storage/users/62389/images/3413_n.jpg”,biography:”Dr. Ali Demir Sezer has a Ph.D. from Pharmaceutical Biotechnology at the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Marmara (Turkey). He is the member of many Pharmaceutical Associations and acts as a reviewer of scientific journals and European projects under different research areas such as: drug delivery systems, nanotechnology and pharmaceutical biotechnology. Dr. Sezer is the author of many scientific publications in peer-reviewed journals and poster communications. Focus of his research activity is drug delivery, physico-chemical characterization and biological evaluation of biopolymers micro and nanoparticles as modified drug delivery system, and colloidal drug carriers (liposomes, nanoparticles etc.).”,institutionString:null,institution:{name:”Marmara University”,country:{name:”Turkey”}}},{id:”61051″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Andrea”,middleName:null,surname:”Natale”,slug:”andrea-natale”,fullName:”Andrea Natale”,position:null,profilePictureURL:”//cdnintech.com/web/frontend/www/assets/author.svg”,biography:null,institutionString:null,institution:null},{id:”100762″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Andrea”,middleName:null,surname:”Natale”,slug:”andrea-natale”,fullName:”Andrea Natale”,position:null,profilePictureURL:”//cdnintech.com/web/frontend/www/assets/author.svg”,biography:null,institutionString:null,institution:{name:”St David’s Medical Center”,country:{name:”United States of America”}}},{id:”107416″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Andrea”,middleName:null,surname:”Natale”,slug:”andrea-natale”,fullName:”Andrea Natale”,position:null,profilePictureURL:”//cdnintech.com/web/frontend/www/assets/author.svg”,biography:null,institutionString:null,institution:{name:”Texas Cardiac Arrhythmia”,country:{name:”United States of America”}}},{id:”64434″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Angkoon”,middleName:null,surname:”Phinyomark”,slug:”angkoon-phinyomark”,fullName:”Angkoon Phinyomark”,position:null,profilePictureURL:”https://mts.intechopen.com/storage/users/64434/images/2619_n.jpg”,biography:”My name is Angkoon Phinyomark. I received a B.Eng. degree in Computer Engineering with First Class Honors in 2008 from Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand, where I received a Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering. My research interests are primarily in the area of biomedical signal processing and classification notably EMG (electromyography signal), EOG (electrooculography signal), and EEG (electroencephalography signal), image analysis notably breast cancer analysis and optical coherence tomography, and rehabilitation engineering. I became a student member of IEEE in 2008. During October 2011-March 2012, I had worked at School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Colchester, Essex, United Kingdom. In addition, during a B.Eng. I had been a visiting research student at Faculty of Computer Science, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain for three months.nnI have published over 40 papers during 5 years in refereed journals, books, and conference proceedings in the areas of electro-physiological signals processing and classification, notably EMG and EOG signals, fractal analysis, wavelet analysis, texture analysis, feature extraction and machine learning algorithms, and assistive and rehabilitative devices. I have several computer programming language certificates, i.e. Sun Certified Programmer for the Java 2 Platform 1.4 (SCJP), Microsoft Certified Professional Developer, Web Developer (MCPD), Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist, .NET Framework 2.0 Web (MCTS). I am a Reviewer for several refereed journals and international conferences, such as IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Optic Letters, Measurement Science Review, and also a member of the International Advisory Committee for 2012 IEEE Business Engineering and Industrial Applications and 2012 IEEE Symposium on Business, Engineering and Industrial Applications.”,institutionString:null,institution:{name:”Joseph Fourier University”,country:{name:”France”}}},{id:”55578″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Antonio”,middleName:null,surname:”Jurado-Navas”,slug:”antonio-jurado-navas”,fullName:”Antonio Jurado-Navas”,position:null,profilePictureURL:”https://mts.intechopen.com/storage/users/55578/images/4574_n.png”,biography:”Antonio Jurado-Navas received the M.S. degree (2002) and the Ph.D. degree (2009) in Telecommunication Engineering, both from the University of Málaga (Spain). He first worked as a consultant at Vodafone-Spain. From 2004 to 2011, he was a Research Assistant with the Communications Engineering Department at the University of Málaga. In 2011, he became an Assistant Professor in the same department. From 2012 to 2015, he was with Ericsson Spain, where he was working on geo-locationntools for third generation mobile networks. Since 2015, he is a Marie-Curie fellow at the Denmark Technical University. His current research interests include the areas of mobile communication systems and channel modeling in addition to atmospheric optical communications, adaptive optics and statistics”,institutionString:null,institution:{name:”University of Malaga”,country:{name:”Spain”}}}],filtersByRegion:[{group:”region”,caption:”North America”,value:1,count:5287},{group:”region”,caption:”Middle and South America”,value:2,count:4803},{group:”region”,caption:”Africa”,value:3,count:1447},{group:”region”,caption:”Asia”,value:4,count:9275},{group:”region”,caption:”Australia and Oceania”,value:5,count:832},{group:”region”,caption:”Europe”,value:6,count:14696}],offset:12,limit:12,total:106932},chapterEmbeded:{data:{}},editorApplication:{success:null,errors:{}},ofsBooks:{filterParams:{topicId:”127″},books:[],filtersByTopic:[{group:”topic”,caption:”Agricultural and Biological Sciences”,value:5,count:39},{group:”topic”,caption:”Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology”,value:6,count:55},{group:”topic”,caption:”Business, Management and Economics”,value:7,count:9},{group:”topic”,caption:”Chemistry”,value:8,count:31},{group:”topic”,caption:”Computer and Information Science”,value:9,count:35},{group:”topic”,caption:”Earth and Planetary Sciences”,value:10,count:16},{group:”topic”,caption:”Engineering”,value:11,count:73},{group:”topic”,caption:”Environmental Sciences”,value:12,count:14},{group:”topic”,caption:”Immunology and Microbiology”,value:13,count:12},{group:”topic”,caption:”Materials Science”,value:14,count:37},{group:”topic”,caption:”Mathematics”,value:15,count:9},{group:”topic”,caption:”Medicine”,value:16,count:163},{group:”topic”,caption:”Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials”,value:17,count:6},{group:”topic”,caption:”Neuroscience”,value:18,count:8},{group:”topic”,caption:”Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science”,value:19,count:20},{group:”topic”,caption:”Physics”,value:20,count:26},{group:”topic”,caption:”Psychology”,value:21,count:2},{group:”topic”,caption:”Robotics”,value:22,count:2},{group:”topic”,caption:”Social Sciences”,value:23,count:14},{group:”topic”,caption:”Technology”,value:24,count:6},{group:”topic”,caption:”Veterinary Medicine and Science”,value:25,count:4},{group:”topic”,caption:”Metals and Nonmetals”,value:158,count:1},{group:”topic”,caption:”Endocrinology”,value:178,count:1},{group:”topic”,caption:”Gastroenterology”,value:181,count:1},{group:”topic”,caption:”Genesiology”,value:300,count:1},{group:”topic”,caption:”Intelligent System”,value:535,count:1}],offset:12,limit:12,total:0},popularBooks:{featuredBooks:[{type:”book”,id:”7305″,title:”Biochar”,subtitle:”An Imperative Amendment for Soil and the Environment”,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”b74c8692349d3c499dfe906a9ed7678d”,slug:”biochar-an-imperative-amendment-for-soil-and-the-environment”,bookSignature:”Vikas Abrol and Peeyush Sharma”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/7305.jpg”,editors:[{id:”136230″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Vikas”,middleName:null,surname:”Abrol”,slug:”vikas-abrol”,fullName:”Vikas Abrol”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”7943″,title:”Nutrition in Health and Disease”,subtitle:”Our Challenges Now and Forthcoming Time”,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”bf9135b4940c5e9bf0f7de103e543946″,slug:”nutrition-in-health-and-disease-our-challenges-now-and-forthcoming-time”,bookSignature:”Gyula Mózsik and Mária Figler”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/7943.jpg”,editors:[{id:”58390″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Gyula”,middleName:null,surname:”Mozsik”,slug:”gyula-mozsik”,fullName:”Gyula Mozsik”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”7198″,title:”Propulsion Systems”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”fd56f1620b0b201a3de0cd3f7e04d15c”,slug:”propulsion-systems”,bookSignature:”Alessandro Serpi and Mario Porru”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/7198.jpg”,editors:[{id:”217145″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Alessandro”,middleName:null,surname:”Serpi”,slug:”alessandro-serpi”,fullName:”Alessandro Serpi”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”8446″,title:”Zinc Oxide Based Nano Materials and Devices”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”7c1d14eb8eac769093f8d7a219a3884f”,slug:”zinc-oxide-based-nano-materials-and-devices”,bookSignature:”Ahmed M. Nahhas”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/8446.jpg”,editors:[{id:”140058″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Prof. Dr. Ahmed”,middleName:”M”,surname:”Nahhas,”,slug:”prof.-dr.-ahmed-nahhas”,fullName:”Prof. Dr. Ahmed Nahhas,”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”8645″,title:”Contemporary Topics in Graduate Medical Education”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”76d224ba3c158c43fda8141a61ababd6″,slug:”contemporary-topics-in-graduate-medical-education”,bookSignature:”Stanislaw P. Stawicki, Michael S. Firstenberg, James P. Orlando and Thomas J. Papadimos”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/8645.jpg”,editors:[{id:”181694″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Stanislaw P.”,middleName:null,surname:”Stawicki”,slug:”stanislaw-p.-stawicki”,fullName:”Stanislaw P. Stawicki”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”9337″,title:”Sustainable Management Practices”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”ef070ee744c15a1084cca5bb546816df”,slug:”sustainable-management-practices”,bookSignature:”Muddassar Sarfraz, Muhammad Ibrahim Adbullah, Abdul Rauf and Syed Ghulam Meran Shah”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/9337.jpg”,editors:[{id:”260655″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Muddassar”,middleName:null,surname:”Sarfraz”,slug:”muddassar-sarfraz”,fullName:”Muddassar Sarfraz”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”6929″,title:”Active Learning”,subtitle:”Beyond the Future”,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”fe54807c3ff7c1b500127e814988f5e2″,slug:”active-learning-beyond-the-future”,bookSignature:”Sílvio Manuel Brito”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/6929.jpg”,editors:[{id:”170935″,title:”Ph.D.”,name:”Sílvio Manuel”,middleName:”Da Rocha”,surname:”Brito”,slug:”silvio-manuel-brito”,fullName:”Sílvio Manuel Brito”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”8352″,title:”Use of Gamma Radiation Techniques in Peaceful Applications”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”9d89a5d9be18d6ee9231976f596cf415″,slug:”use-of-gamma-radiation-techniques-in-peaceful-applications”,bookSignature:”Basim A. Almayah”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/8352.jpg”,editors:[{id:”178830″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Basim”,middleName:”A.”,surname:”Almayahi”,slug:”basim-almayahi”,fullName:”Basim Almayahi”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”8852″,title:”Chemistry and Applications of Benzimidazole and its Derivatives”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”e95984a2b87df5a7ca051cb3345d5e7a”,slug:”chemistry-and-applications-of-benzimidazole-and-its-derivatives”,bookSignature:”Maria Marinescu”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/8852.jpg”,editors:[{id:”250975″,title:”Ph.D.”,name:”Maria”,middleName:null,surname:”Marinescu”,slug:”maria-marinescu”,fullName:”Maria Marinescu”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”6996″,title:”Strawberry”,subtitle:”Pre- and Post-Harvest Management Techniques for Higher Fruit Quality”,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”dc740162f400a4dd3e9377a140424917″,slug:”strawberry-pre-and-post-harvest-management-techniques-for-higher-fruit-quality”,bookSignature:”Toshiki Asao and Md Asaduzzaman”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/6996.jpg”,editors:[{id:”106510″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Toshiki”,middleName:null,surname:”Asao”,slug:”toshiki-asao”,fullName:”Toshiki Asao”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”8398″,title:”2D Materials”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”974977d9d7e76f2f4c93470c844f4cd5″,slug:”2d-materials”,bookSignature:”Chatchawal Wongchoosuk and Yotsarayuth Seekaew”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/8398.jpg”,editors:[{id:”34521″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Chatchawal”,middleName:null,surname:”Wongchoosuk”,slug:”chatchawal-wongchoosuk”,fullName:”Chatchawal Wongchoosuk”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”2160″,title:”MATLAB”,subtitle:”A Fundamental Tool for Scientific Computing and Engineering Applications – Volume 1″,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”dd9c658341fbd264ed4f8d9e6aa8ca29″,slug:”matlab-a-fundamental-tool-for-scientific-computing-and-engineering-applications-volume-1″,bookSignature:”Vasilios N. Katsikis”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/2160.jpg”,editors:[{id:”12289″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Vasilios”,middleName:”N.”,surname:”Katsikis”,slug:”vasilios-katsikis”,fullName:”Vasilios Katsikis”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}}],offset:12,limit:12,total:4114},hotBookTopics:{hotBooks:[],offset:0,limit:12,total:null},publish:{},publishingProposal:{success:null,errors:{}},books:{featuredBooks:[{type:”book”,id:”7305″,title:”Biochar”,subtitle:”An Imperative Amendment for Soil and the Environment”,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”b74c8692349d3c499dfe906a9ed7678d”,slug:”biochar-an-imperative-amendment-for-soil-and-the-environment”,bookSignature:”Vikas Abrol and Peeyush Sharma”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/7305.jpg”,editors:[{id:”136230″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Vikas”,middleName:null,surname:”Abrol”,slug:”vikas-abrol”,fullName:”Vikas Abrol”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”7943″,title:”Nutrition in Health and Disease”,subtitle:”Our Challenges Now and Forthcoming Time”,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”bf9135b4940c5e9bf0f7de103e543946″,slug:”nutrition-in-health-and-disease-our-challenges-now-and-forthcoming-time”,bookSignature:”Gyula Mózsik and Mária Figler”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/7943.jpg”,editors:[{id:”58390″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Gyula”,middleName:null,surname:”Mozsik”,slug:”gyula-mozsik”,fullName:”Gyula Mozsik”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”7198″,title:”Propulsion Systems”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”fd56f1620b0b201a3de0cd3f7e04d15c”,slug:”propulsion-systems”,bookSignature:”Alessandro Serpi and Mario Porru”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/7198.jpg”,editors:[{id:”217145″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Alessandro”,middleName:null,surname:”Serpi”,slug:”alessandro-serpi”,fullName:”Alessandro Serpi”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”8446″,title:”Zinc Oxide Based Nano Materials and Devices”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”7c1d14eb8eac769093f8d7a219a3884f”,slug:”zinc-oxide-based-nano-materials-and-devices”,bookSignature:”Ahmed M. Nahhas”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/8446.jpg”,editors:[{id:”140058″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Prof. Dr. Ahmed”,middleName:”M”,surname:”Nahhas,”,slug:”prof.-dr.-ahmed-nahhas”,fullName:”Prof. Dr. Ahmed Nahhas,”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”8645″,title:”Contemporary Topics in Graduate Medical Education”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”76d224ba3c158c43fda8141a61ababd6″,slug:”contemporary-topics-in-graduate-medical-education”,bookSignature:”Stanislaw P. Stawicki, Michael S. Firstenberg, James P. Orlando and Thomas J. Papadimos”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/8645.jpg”,editors:[{id:”181694″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Stanislaw P.”,middleName:null,surname:”Stawicki”,slug:”stanislaw-p.-stawicki”,fullName:”Stanislaw P. Stawicki”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”9337″,title:”Sustainable Management Practices”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”ef070ee744c15a1084cca5bb546816df”,slug:”sustainable-management-practices”,bookSignature:”Muddassar Sarfraz, Muhammad Ibrahim Adbullah, Abdul Rauf and Syed Ghulam Meran Shah”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/9337.jpg”,editors:[{id:”260655″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Muddassar”,middleName:null,surname:”Sarfraz”,slug:”muddassar-sarfraz”,fullName:”Muddassar Sarfraz”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”6929″,title:”Active Learning”,subtitle:”Beyond the Future”,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”fe54807c3ff7c1b500127e814988f5e2″,slug:”active-learning-beyond-the-future”,bookSignature:”Sílvio Manuel Brito”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/6929.jpg”,editors:[{id:”170935″,title:”Ph.D.”,name:”Sílvio Manuel”,middleName:”Da Rocha”,surname:”Brito”,slug:”silvio-manuel-brito”,fullName:”Sílvio Manuel Brito”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”8352″,title:”Use of Gamma Radiation Techniques in Peaceful Applications”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”9d89a5d9be18d6ee9231976f596cf415″,slug:”use-of-gamma-radiation-techniques-in-peaceful-applications”,bookSignature:”Basim A. Almayah”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/8352.jpg”,editors:[{id:”178830″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Basim”,middleName:”A.”,surname:”Almayahi”,slug:”basim-almayahi”,fullName:”Basim Almayahi”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”8852″,title:”Chemistry and Applications of Benzimidazole and its Derivatives”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”e95984a2b87df5a7ca051cb3345d5e7a”,slug:”chemistry-and-applications-of-benzimidazole-and-its-derivatives”,bookSignature:”Maria Marinescu”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/8852.jpg”,editors:[{id:”250975″,title:”Ph.D.”,name:”Maria”,middleName:null,surname:”Marinescu”,slug:”maria-marinescu”,fullName:”Maria Marinescu”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”6996″,title:”Strawberry”,subtitle:”Pre- and Post-Harvest Management Techniques for Higher Fruit Quality”,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”dc740162f400a4dd3e9377a140424917″,slug:”strawberry-pre-and-post-harvest-management-techniques-for-higher-fruit-quality”,bookSignature:”Toshiki Asao and Md Asaduzzaman”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/6996.jpg”,editors:[{id:”106510″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Toshiki”,middleName:null,surname:”Asao”,slug:”toshiki-asao”,fullName:”Toshiki Asao”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}}],latestBooks:[{type:”book”,id:”7939″,title:”Smoking”,subtitle:”Prevention, Cessation and Health Effects”,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”2f432ec1f53e4a20071a2ec2678daa4c”,slug:”smoking-prevention-cessation-and-health-effects”,bookSignature:”Li Ping Wong and Victor Hoe”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/7939.jpg”,editedByType:”Edited by”,editors:[{id:”197959″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Li Ping”,middleName:null,surname:”Wong”,slug:”li-ping-wong”,fullName:”Li Ping Wong”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”,authoredCaption:”Edited by”}},{type:”book”,id:”7943″,title:”Nutrition in Health and Disease”,subtitle:”Our Challenges Now and Forthcoming Time”,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”bf9135b4940c5e9bf0f7de103e543946″,slug:”nutrition-in-health-and-disease-our-challenges-now-and-forthcoming-time”,bookSignature:”Gyula Mózsik and Mária Figler”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/7943.jpg”,editedByType:”Edited by”,editors:[{id:”58390″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Gyula”,middleName:null,surname:”Mozsik”,slug:”gyula-mozsik”,fullName:”Gyula Mozsik”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”,authoredCaption:”Edited by”}},{type:”book”,id:”6677″,title:”Recent Advances in Neurodegeneration”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”65c05412d2a2f134e3eaa811c921273e”,slug:”recent-advances-in-neurodegeneration”,bookSignature:”Antonella Borreca”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/6677.jpg”,editedByType:”Edited by”,editors:[{id:”192832″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Antonella”,middleName:null,surname:”Borreca”,slug:”antonella-borreca”,fullName:”Antonella Borreca”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”,authoredCaption:”Edited by”}},{type:”book”,id:”7515″,title:”Photonic Crystals”,subtitle:”A Glimpse of the Current Research Trends”,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”1dcab6021cb88bdb66e9588e2fc24d19″,slug:”photonic-crystals-a-glimpse-of-the-current-research-trends”,bookSignature:”Pankaj Kumar Choudhury”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/7515.jpg”,editedByType:”Edited by”,editors:[{id:”205744″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Pankaj”,middleName:null,surname:”Kumar Choudhury”,slug:”pankaj-kumar-choudhury”,fullName:”Pankaj Kumar Choudhury”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”,authoredCaption:”Edited by”}},{type:”book”,id:”9337″,title:”Sustainable Management Practices”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”ef070ee744c15a1084cca5bb546816df”,slug:”sustainable-management-practices”,bookSignature:”Muddassar Sarfraz, Muhammad Ibrahim Adbullah, Abdul Rauf and Syed Ghulam Meran Shah”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/9337.jpg”,editedByType:”Edited by”,editors:[{id:”260655″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Muddassar”,middleName:null,surname:”Sarfraz”,slug:”muddassar-sarfraz”,fullName:”Muddassar Sarfraz”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”,authoredCaption:”Edited by”}},{type:”book”,id:”7554″,title:”Functional Materials”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”5519dce9bc7d81f85ac967824eb508b8″,slug:”functional-materials”,bookSignature:”Dipti Sahu”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/7554.jpg”,editedByType:”Edited by”,editors:[{id:”251855″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Dipti Ranjan”,middleName:null,surname:”Sahu”,slug:”dipti-ranjan-sahu”,fullName:”Dipti Ranjan Sahu”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”,authoredCaption:”Edited by”}},{type:”book”,id:”7305″,title:”Biochar”,subtitle:”An Imperative Amendment for Soil and the Environment”,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”b74c8692349d3c499dfe906a9ed7678d”,slug:”biochar-an-imperative-amendment-for-soil-and-the-environment”,bookSignature:”Vikas Abrol and Peeyush Sharma”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/7305.jpg”,editedByType:”Edited by”,editors:[{id:”136230″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Vikas”,middleName:null,surname:”Abrol”,slug:”vikas-abrol”,fullName:”Vikas Abrol”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”,authoredCaption:”Edited by”}},{type:”book”,id:”7835″,title:”Autism Spectrum Disorders”,subtitle:”Advances at the End of the Second Decade of the 21st Century”,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”2cfcf44e79e12e620251aaa9d08a4a3e”,slug:”autism-spectrum-disorders-advances-at-the-end-of-the-second-decade-of-the-21st-century”,bookSignature:”Michael Fitzgerald”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/7835.jpg”,editedByType:”Edited by”,editors:[{id:”205005″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Michael”,middleName:null,surname:”Fitzgerald”,slug:”michael-fitzgerald”,fullName:”Michael Fitzgerald”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”,authoredCaption:”Edited by”}},{type:”book”,id:”8645″,title:”Contemporary Topics in Graduate Medical Education”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”76d224ba3c158c43fda8141a61ababd6″,slug:”contemporary-topics-in-graduate-medical-education”,bookSignature:”Stanislaw P. Stawicki, Michael S. Firstenberg, James P. Orlando and Thomas J. Papadimos”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/8645.jpg”,editedByType:”Edited by”,editors:[{id:”181694″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Stanislaw P.”,middleName:null,surname:”Stawicki”,slug:”stanislaw-p.-stawicki”,fullName:”Stanislaw P. Stawicki”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”,authoredCaption:”Edited by”}},{type:”book”,id:”8398″,title:”2D Materials”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”974977d9d7e76f2f4c93470c844f4cd5″,slug:”2d-materials”,bookSignature:”Chatchawal Wongchoosuk and Yotsarayuth Seekaew”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/8398.jpg”,editedByType:”Edited by”,editors:[{id:”34521″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Chatchawal”,middleName:null,surname:”Wongchoosuk”,slug:”chatchawal-wongchoosuk”,fullName:”Chatchawal Wongchoosuk”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”,authoredCaption:”Edited by”}}]},subject:{topic:{id:”915″,title:”Polymers”,slug:”materials-science-biochemistry-polymers”,parent:{title:”Biochemistry”,slug:”materials-science-biochemistry”},numberOfBooks:23,numberOfAuthorsAndEditors:650,numberOfWosCitations:529,numberOfCrossrefCitations:508,numberOfDimensionsCitations:1100,videoUrl:null,fallbackUrl:null,description:null},booksByTopicFilter:{topicSlug:”materials-science-biochemistry-polymers”,sort:”-publishedDate”,limit:12,offset:0},booksByTopicCollection:[{type:”book”,id:”6202″,title:”Applications of Modified Starches”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”9d5fc4b642d47ae13c608ceaa38cf554″,slug:”applications-of-modified-starches”,bookSignature:”Emmanuel Flores Huicochea and Rodolfo Rendón Villalobos”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/6202.jpg”,editedByType:”Edited by”,editors:[{id:”206705″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Emmanuel”,middleName:null,surname:”Flores Huicochea”,slug:”emmanuel-flores-huicochea”,fullName:”Emmanuel Flores Huicochea”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”,authoredCaption:”Edited by”}},{type:”book”,id:”6185″,title:”Lignin”,subtitle:”Trends and Applications”,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”3c0b9e64cd29f76f5de2dc06531633ce”,slug:”lignin-trends-and-applications”,bookSignature:”Matheus Poletto”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/6185.jpg”,editedByType:”Edited by”,editors:[{id:”140017″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Matheus”,middleName:null,surname:”Poletto”,slug:”matheus-poletto”,fullName:”Matheus Poletto”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”,authoredCaption:”Edited by”}},{type:”book”,id:”6001″,title:”Acrylic Polymers in Healthcare”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”598f8fc0a85fde7d5cea05aa541f2ea5″,slug:”acrylic-polymers-in-healthcare”,bookSignature:”Boreddy S.R. Reddy”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/6001.jpg”,editedByType:”Edited by”,editors:[{id:”16251″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Boreddy”,middleName:”S.R.”,surname:”Reddy”,slug:”boreddy-reddy”,fullName:”Boreddy Reddy”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”,authoredCaption:”Edited by”}},{type:”book”,id:”5904″,title:”Aspects of Polyurethanes”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”514b1dfa3811606d3dd5faf2c4f3ef30″,slug:”aspects-of-polyurethanes”,bookSignature:”Faris Yilmaz”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/5904.jpg”,editedByType:”Edited by”,editors:[{id:”36900″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Faris”,middleName:”Sad”,surname:”Yılmaz”,slug:”faris-yilmaz”,fullName:”Faris Yılmaz”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”,authoredCaption:”Edited by”}},{type:”book”,id:”5919″,title:”Elastomers”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”5c1ca61ab151481bb9e7da3fd463cf14″,slug:”elastomers”,bookSignature:”Nevin Cankaya”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/5919.jpg”,editedByType:”Edited by”,editors:[{id:”175645″,title:”Associate Prof.”,name:”Nevin”,middleName:null,surname:”Çankaya”,slug:”nevin-cankaya”,fullName:”Nevin Çankaya”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”,authoredCaption:”Edited by”}},{type:”book”,id:”5365″,title:”Adhesives”,subtitle:”Applications and Properties”,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”c2b4cabdd0f77b9b7ab6d38eb8392873″,slug:”adhesives-applications-and-properties”,bookSignature:”Anna Rudawska”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/5365.jpg”,editedByType:”Edited by”,editors:[{id:”110857″,title:”Associate Prof.”,name:”Anna”,middleName:null,surname:”Rudawska”,slug:”anna-rudawska”,fullName:”Anna Rudawska”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”,authoredCaption:”Edited by”}},{type:”book”,id:”5260″,title:”Conducting Polymers”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”5b1132e8d69de0d37de11869d8b87543″,slug:”conducting-polymers”,bookSignature:”Faris Yilmaz”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/5260.jpg”,editedByType:”Edited by”,editors:[{id:”36900″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Faris”,middleName:”Sad”,surname:”Yılmaz”,slug:”faris-yilmaz”,fullName:”Faris Yılmaz”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”,authoredCaption:”Edited by”}},{type:”book”,id:”5302″,title:”Viscoelastic and Viscoplastic Materials”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”b83c0ce566156f818b8e19bbf24366ab”,slug:”viscoelastic-and-viscoplastic-materials”,bookSignature:”Mohamed Fathy El-Amin”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/5302.jpg”,editedByType:”Edited by”,editors:[{id:”17141″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Mohamed”,middleName:”F.”,surname:”El-Amin”,slug:”mohamed-el-amin”,fullName:”Mohamed El-Amin”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”,authoredCaption:”Edited by”}},{type:”book”,id:”5251″,title:”Emerging Concepts in Analysis and Applications of Hydrogels”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”e3ca3de461f0eeb54055b0b83de89bc7″,slug:”emerging-concepts-in-analysis-and-applications-of-hydrogels”,bookSignature:”Sutapa Biswas Majee”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/5251.jpg”,editedByType:”Edited by”,editors:[{id:”100703″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Sutapa”,middleName:null,surname:”Biswas Majee”,slug:”sutapa-biswas-majee”,fullName:”Sutapa Biswas Majee”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”,authoredCaption:”Edited by”}},{type:”book”,id:”5089″,title:”Recent Advances in Biopolymers”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”49b676f9ac3f7097cd3d01b379cde9b4″,slug:”recent-advances-in-biopolymers”,bookSignature:”Farzana Khan Perveen”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/5089.jpg”,editedByType:”Edited by”,editors:[{id:”75563″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Farzana Khan”,middleName:null,surname:”Perveen”,slug:”farzana-khan-perveen”,fullName:”Farzana Khan Perveen”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”,authoredCaption:”Edited by”}},{type:”book”,id:”4694″,title:”Thermoplastic Elastomers”,subtitle:”Synthesis and Applications”,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”c3ec02a814af3a9d5b35090169290549″,slug:”thermoplastic-elastomers-synthesis-and-applications”,bookSignature:”Chapal Kumar Das”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/4694.jpg”,editedByType:”Edited by”,editors:[{id:”175797″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Chapal”,middleName:null,surname:”Kumar Das”,slug:”chapal-kumar-das”,fullName:”Chapal Kumar Das”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”,authoredCaption:”Edited by”}},{type:”book”,id:”2828″,title:”Fiber Reinforced Polymers”,subtitle:”The Technology Applied for Concrete Repair”,isOpenForSubmission:!1,hash:”4922c593466cc822b281fe7cc7d7fef6″,slug:”fiber-reinforced-polymers-the-technology-applied-for-concrete-repair”,bookSignature:”Martin Alberto Masuelli”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/2828.jpg”,editedByType:”Edited by”,editors:[{id:”99994″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Martin”,middleName:”Alberto”,surname:”Masuelli”,slug:”martin-masuelli”,fullName:”Martin Masuelli”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”,authoredCaption:”Edited by”}}],booksByTopicTotal:23,mostCitedChapters:[{id:”38964″,doi:”10.5772/48779″,title:”Microwave Absorption and EMI Shielding Behavior of Nanocomposites Based on Intrinsically Conducting Polymers, Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes”,slug:”microwave-absorption-and-emi-shielding-behavior-of-nanocomposites-based-on-intrinsically-conducting-“,totalDownloads:12186,totalCrossrefCites:34,totalDimensionsCites:71,book:{slug:”new-polymers-for-special-applications”,title:”New Polymers for Special Applications”,fullTitle:”New Polymers for Special Applications”},signatures:”Parveen Saini and Manju Arora”,authors:[{id:”149897″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Parveen”,middleName:null,surname:”Saini”,slug:”parveen-saini”,fullName:”Parveen Saini”},{id:”156193″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Manju”,middleName:null,surname:”Arora”,slug:”manju-arora”,fullName:”Manju Arora”}]},{id:”16990″,doi:”10.5772/18423″,title:”Polymer/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites”,slug:”polymer-carbon-nanotube-nanocomposites”,totalDownloads:12598,totalCrossrefCites:30,totalDimensionsCites:51,book:{slug:”carbon-nanotubes-polymer-nanocomposites”,title:”Carbon Nanotubes”,fullTitle:”Carbon Nanotubes – Polymer Nanocomposites”},signatures:”Veena Choudhary and Anju Gupta”,authors:[{id:”31470″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Veena”,middleName:null,surname:”Choudhary”,slug:”veena-choudhary”,fullName:”Veena Choudhary”},{id:”39588″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Anju”,middleName:null,surname:”Gupta”,slug:”anju-gupta”,fullName:”Anju Gupta”}]},{id:”38965″,doi:”10.5772/48758″,title:”Oxidative Polymerization of Aniline: Molecular Synthesis of Polyaniline and the Formation of Supramolecular Structures”,slug:”oxidative-polymerization-of-aniline-molecular-synthesis-of-polyaniline-and-the-formation-of-supramol”,totalDownloads:18335,totalCrossrefCites:19,totalDimensionsCites:45,book:{slug:”new-polymers-for-special-applications”,title:”New Polymers for Special Applications”,fullTitle:”New Polymers for Special Applications”},signatures:”I.Yu. Sapurina and M.A. Shishov”,authors:[{id:”149374″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Irina”,middleName:”Yurievna”,surname:”Sapurina”,slug:”irina-sapurina”,fullName:”Irina Sapurina”}]}],mostDownloadedChaptersLast30Days:[{id:”34071″,title:”Lightweight Plastic Materials”,slug:”lightweight-plastic-materials”,totalDownloads:7996,totalCrossrefCites:2,totalDimensionsCites:5,book:{slug:”thermoplastic-elastomers”,title:”Thermoplastic Elastomers”,fullTitle:”Thermoplastic Elastomers”},signatures:”Marek Kozlowski”,authors:[{id:”113558″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Marek”,middleName:null,surname:”Kozlowski”,slug:”marek-kozlowski”,fullName:”Marek Kozlowski”}]},{id:”51535″,title:”An Introduction to Hydrogels and Some Recent Applications”,slug:”an-introduction-to-hydrogels-and-some-recent-applications”,totalDownloads:4535,totalCrossrefCites:5,totalDimensionsCites:12,book:{slug:”emerging-concepts-in-analysis-and-applications-of-hydrogels”,title:”Emerging Concepts in Analysis and Applications of Hydrogels”,fullTitle:”Emerging Concepts in Analysis and Applications of Hydrogels”},signatures:”Morteza Bahram, Naimeh Mohseni and Mehdi Moghtader”,authors:[{id:”179718″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Morteza”,middleName:null,surname:”Bahram”,slug:”morteza-bahram”,fullName:”Morteza Bahram”},{id:”185713″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Naimeh”,middleName:null,surname:”Mohseni”,slug:”naimeh-mohseni”,fullName:”Naimeh Mohseni”},{id:”185714″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Mehdi”,middleName:null,surname:”Moghtader”,slug:”mehdi-moghtader”,fullName:”Mehdi Moghtader”}]},{id:”41941″,title:”Introduction of Fibre-Reinforced Polymers − Polymers and Composites: Concepts, Properties and Processes”,slug:”introduction-of-fibre-reinforced-polymers-polymers-and-composites-concepts-properties-and-processes”,totalDownloads:23451,totalCrossrefCites:10,totalDimensionsCites:20,book:{slug:”fiber-reinforced-polymers-the-technology-applied-for-concrete-repair”,title:”Fiber Reinforced Polymers”,fullTitle:”Fiber Reinforced Polymers – The Technology Applied for Concrete Repair”},signatures:”Martin Alberto Masuelli”,authors:[{id:”99994″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Martin”,middleName:”Alberto”,surname:”Masuelli”,slug:”martin-masuelli”,fullName:”Martin Masuelli”}]},{id:”52676″,title:”Wood Adhesives and Bonding Theory”,slug:”wood-adhesives-and-bonding-theory”,totalDownloads:2585,totalCrossrefCites:0,totalDimensionsCites:0,book:{slug:”adhesives-applications-and-properties”,title:”Adhesives”,fullTitle:”Adhesives – Applications and Properties”},signatures:”Onur Ülker”,authors:[{id:”186443″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Onur”,middleName:null,surname:”Ülker”,slug:”onur-ulker”,fullName:”Onur Ülker”}]},{id:”42097″,title:”Emulsion Polymerization: Effects of Polymerization Variables on the Properties of Vinyl Acetate Based Emulsion Polymers”,slug:”emulsion-polymerization-effects-of-polymerization-variables-on-the-properties-of-vinyl-acetate-based”,totalDownloads:21623,totalCrossrefCites:3,totalDimensionsCites:19,book:{slug:”polymer-science”,title:”Polymer Science”,fullTitle:”Polymer Science”},signatures:”Hale Berber Yamak”,authors:[{id:”139918″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Hale”,middleName:null,surname:”Berber”,slug:”hale-berber”,fullName:”Hale Berber”}]},{id:”49884″,title:”Biopolymers – Application in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology”,slug:”biopolymers-application-in-nanoscience-and-nanotechnology”,totalDownloads:4509,totalCrossrefCites:4,totalDimensionsCites:5,book:{slug:”recent-advances-in-biopolymers”,title:”Recent Advances in Biopolymers”,fullTitle:”Recent Advances in Biopolymers”},signatures:”Sneha Mohan, Oluwatobi S. Oluwafemi, Nandakumar Kalarikkal,nSabu Thomas and Sandile P. Songca”,authors:[{id:”99092″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Samuel Oluwatobi”,middleName:null,surname:”Oluwafemi”,slug:”samuel-oluwatobi-oluwafemi”,fullName:”Samuel Oluwatobi Oluwafemi”}]},{id:”57986″,title:”Lignin Degradation Processes and the Purification of Valuable Products”,slug:”lignin-degradation-processes-and-the-purification-of-valuable-products”,totalDownloads:1048,totalCrossrefCites:0,totalDimensionsCites:0,book:{slug:”lignin-trends-and-applications”,title:”Lignin”,fullTitle:”Lignin – Trends and Applications”},signatures:”Stefan Schoenherr, Mehrdad Ebrahimi and Peter Czermak”,authors:[{id:”178577″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Peter”,middleName:”M”,surname:”Czermak”,slug:”peter-czermak”,fullName:”Peter Czermak”},{id:”215626″,title:”MSc.”,name:”Stefan”,middleName:null,surname:”Schoenherr”,slug:”stefan-schoenherr”,fullName:”Stefan Schoenherr”},{id:”215627″,title:”MSc.”,name:”Mehrdad”,middleName:null,surname:”Ebrahimi”,slug:”mehrdad-ebrahimi”,fullName:”Mehrdad Ebrahimi”}]},{id:”51033″,title:”Conductive Polymer-Based Membranes”,slug:”conductive-polymer-based-membranes”,totalDownloads:1609,totalCrossrefCites:0,totalDimensionsCites:0,book:{slug:”conducting-polymers”,title:”Conducting Polymers”,fullTitle:”Conducting Polymers”},signatures:”Gheorghe Batrinescu, Lucian Alexandru Constantin, AdriananCuciureanu and Mirela Alina Constantin”,authors:[{id:”181577″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Gheorghe”,middleName:null,surname:”Batrinescu”,slug:”gheorghe-batrinescu”,fullName:”Gheorghe Batrinescu”}]},{id:”58768″,title:”An Overview on the Use of Lignin and Its Derivatives in Fire Retardant Polymer Systems”,slug:”an-overview-on-the-use-of-lignin-and-its-derivatives-in-fire-retardant-polymer-systems”,totalDownloads:1235,totalCrossrefCites:1,totalDimensionsCites:3,book:{slug:”lignin-trends-and-applications”,title:”Lignin”,fullTitle:”Lignin – Trends and Applications”},signatures:”Neeraj Mandlekar, Aurélie Cayla, François Rault, Stéphane Giraud,nFabine Salaün, Giulio Malucelli and Jin-Ping Guan”,authors:[{id:”27644″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Fabien”,middleName:null,surname:”Salaün”,slug:”fabien-salaun”,fullName:”Fabien Salaün”},{id:”72195″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Giulio”,middleName:null,surname:”Malucelli”,slug:”giulio-malucelli”,fullName:”Giulio Malucelli”},{id:”189339″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Stéphane”,middleName:null,surname:”Giraud”,slug:”stephane-giraud”,fullName:”Stéphane Giraud”},{id:”218812″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Guan”,middleName:null,surname:”Jinping”,slug:”guan-jinping”,fullName:”Guan Jinping”},{id:”229606″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Aurélie”,middleName:null,surname:”Cayla”,slug:”aurelie-cayla”,fullName:”Aurélie Cayla”},{id:”235379″,title:”Mr.”,name:”Mandlekar”,middleName:null,surname:”Neeraj”,slug:”mandlekar-neeraj”,fullName:”Mandlekar Neeraj”},{id:”235380″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Francois”,middleName:null,surname:”Rault”,slug:”francois-rault”,fullName:”Francois Rault”}]},{id:”39416″,title:”Unsaturated Polyester Resin for Specialty Applications”,slug:”unsaturated-polyester-resin-for-specialty-applications”,totalDownloads:23207,totalCrossrefCites:10,totalDimensionsCites:19,book:{slug:”polyester”,title:”Polyester”,fullTitle:”Polyester”},signatures:”Bharat Dholakiya”,authors:[{id:”144754″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Bharat”,middleName:”Z”,surname:”Dholakiya”,slug:”bharat-dholakiya”,fullName:”Bharat Dholakiya”}]}],onlineFirstChaptersFilter:{topicSlug:”materials-science-biochemistry-polymers”,limit:3,offset:0},onlineFirstChaptersCollection:[],onlineFirstChaptersTotal:0},preDownload:{success:null,errors:{}},aboutIntechopen:{},privacyPolicy:{},peerReviewing:{},howOpenAccessPublishingWithIntechopenWorks:{},sponsorshipBooks:{sponsorshipBooks:[{type:”book”,id:”9420″,title:”Risk Assessment in Air Traffic Management”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!0,hash:”91e95c7c9fc0be27b80a269a9fa81d90″,slug:null,bookSignature:”MSc. Javier Alberto Perez Castan and MSc. Alvaro Rodriguez Sanz”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/9420.jpg”,editedByType:null,editors:[{id:”222047″,title:”MSc.”,name:”Javier Alberto”,middleName:null,surname:”Perez Castan”,slug:”javier-alberto-perez-castan”,fullName:”Javier Alberto Perez Castan”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”10110″,title:”Advances and Technologies in Building Construction and Structural Analysis”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!0,hash:”556446ef68d2ed7b2cd8661a39ffae1e”,slug:null,bookSignature:”Dr. Ali Kaboli and Dr. Sara Shirowzhan”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/10110.jpg”,editedByType:null,editors:[{id:”309192″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Ali”,middleName:null,surname:”Kaboli”,slug:”ali-kaboli”,fullName:”Ali Kaboli”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”6837″,title:”Lithium-ion Batteries – Thin Film for Energy Materials and Devices”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!0,hash:”ea7789260b319b9a4b472257f57bfeb5″,slug:null,bookSignature:”Prof. Mitsunobu Sato, Dr. Li Lu and Dr. Hiroki Nagai”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/6837.jpg”,editedByType:null,editors:[{id:”179615″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Mitsunobu”,middleName:null,surname:”Sato”,slug:”mitsunobu-sato”,fullName:”Mitsunobu Sato”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”9423″,title:”Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Process Industry Automation, Heat and Power Generation and Smart Manufacturing”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!0,hash:”10ac8fb0bdbf61044395963028653d21″,slug:null,bookSignature:”Prof. Konstantinos G. Kyprianidis and Prof. Erik Dahlquist”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/9423.jpg”,editedByType:null,editors:[{id:”35868″,title:”Prof.”,name:”Konstantinos”,middleName:”G.”,surname:”Kyprianidis”,slug:”konstantinos-kyprianidis”,fullName:”Konstantinos Kyprianidis”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”9428″,title:”New Trends in the Use of Artificial Intelligence for the Industry 4.0″,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!0,hash:”9e089eec484ce8e9eb32198c2d8b34ea”,slug:null,bookSignature:”Dr. Luis Romeral Martinez, Dr. Roque A. Osornio-Rios and Dr. Miguel Delgado Prieto”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/9428.jpg”,editedByType:null,editors:[{id:”86501″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Luis”,middleName:null,surname:”Romeral Martinez”,slug:”luis-romeral-martinez”,fullName:”Luis Romeral Martinez”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”10107″,title:”Artificial Intelligence in Oncology Drug Discovery & Development”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!0,hash:”043c178c3668865ab7d35dcb2ceea794″,slug:null,bookSignature:”Dr. John Cassidy and Dr. Belle Taylor”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/10107.jpg”,editedByType:null,editors:[{id:”244455″,title:”Dr.”,name:”John”,middleName:null,surname:”Cassidy”,slug:”john-cassidy”,fullName:”John Cassidy”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”8903″,title:”Carbon Based Material for Environmental Protection and Remediation”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!0,hash:”19da699b370f320eca63ef2ba02f745d”,slug:null,bookSignature:”Dr. Mattia Bartoli and Dr. Marco Frediani”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/8903.jpg”,editedByType:null,editors:[{id:”188999″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Mattia”,middleName:null,surname:”Bartoli”,slug:”mattia-bartoli”,fullName:”Mattia Bartoli”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}},{type:”book”,id:”10132″,title:”Applied Computational Near-surface Geophysics – From Integral and Derivative Formulas to MATLAB Codes”,subtitle:null,isOpenForSubmission:!0,hash:”38cdbbb671df620b36ee96af1d9a3a90″,slug:null,bookSignature:”Dr. Afshin Aghayan”,coverURL:”https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/10132.jpg”,editedByType:null,editors:[{id:”311030″,title:”Dr.”,name:”Afshin”,middleName:null,surname:”Aghayan”,slug:”afshin-aghayan”,fullName:”Afshin Aghayan”}],productType:{id:”1″,chapterContentType:”chapter”}}],offset:8,limit:8,total:10},humansInSpaceProgram:{},teamHumansInSpaceProgram:{},route:{name:”book.detail”,path:”http://www.intechopen.com/books/machine_learning”,hash:””,query:{},params:{book:”machine_learning”},fullPath:”http://www.intechopen.com/books/machine_learning”,meta:{},from:{name:null,path:”http://www.intechopen.com/”,hash:””,query:{},params:{},fullPath:”http://www.intechopen.com/”,meta:{}}}},function(){var e;(e=document.currentScript||document.scripts[document.scripts.length-1]).parentNode.removeChild(e)}()

Source

Forgot Password